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Multicultural Marian Articles

Multicultural Marian Articles

Mary and Multi-Cultural Marian Studies

Marian studies are expressed in specific languages - English, Italian, German, Spanish, French, and many others. It is a given that language serves a specific culture, and that culture impacts on theology. Thus, Marian studies expressed in different languages denote a variety of interests, commitments, cultural sensitivities and a difference in discourse. There is, of course, theological and cultural richness in these differences, which, quite frequently, and in the end suggest complementarily rather than opposition. But since language can also be a barrier to communication and understanding, The Mary Page offers in this section regular communications and analyses of major contributions in languages other than English. The focus of these communications will be primarily periodicals and proceedings of conventions and symposia about Marian issues at large.

Evaluation of Recent Periodical Articles


The articles presented in this issue, according to its editors, converge in the Heart of the Mother. The first contribution by P. L. Dominguez highlights the facts that while Mary was on earth as well as now in heaven, her heartbeat is not a-sexual but vibrates in feminine tones with a concrete personal biography. While I. Naumann's essay does not directly refer to Mary's motherly heart, she identifies Mary's love, traditionally linked to the human heart, which makes her truly human in the fullest sense of the word. Based on the message of Fatima, H.C.R. García Paredes' study evaluates Mary's heart as the place where the broken covenant between God and humanity is re-established. V.R. Azcuy's monograph proposes that Therese of Lisieux’s biography was decisively influenced by Mary’s smile, symbol of Mary's compassionate heart for the health of her spiritual child. Likewise, J-D. Gaitán attends to the impact of Our Lady's motherly concern on the Work of Mary founded by Chiara Lubich. Finally, P. M. Fernando's insightful survey unveils the strong rapport of Asian peoples to the affective concern of a mother, which can easily be symbolized with Mary’s heart.

"Dominguez, Pablo Largo. Cuerpo de Historia y Cuerpo de Gloria de la Madre del Señor. Enfoque antropológico." 7-29

Summary: The church confesses the mystery of Mary’s Assumption to heavenly glory in her integral reality. The author first examines the relationships between body and salvation in the Christian tradition. Then in reference to Mary, he examines these concepts: physical body, body of history, psychic body, glorious body; he concludes by developing links between these aspects with emphasis on current eschatological questions.

"Naumann, Isabell. Mary as the Anthropological Model in the Thought of J. Kentenich." 31-47

Summary: The author develops Kentenich's theological anthropology in five steps: The human person (1) created in the image and likeness of God; (2) called to freedom; (3) a relational being; (4) repraesentatio Christi; (5) agent in history. She proceeds by identifying Mary as causa exemplaris of the Christian personality based on her cooperation in salvation history as Immaculata. In this context Mary shines forth as the prototype of the human person and of the ecclesial community.

"García Paredes, José Cristo Rey. La Dimensión apocalíptica de la manifestación del corazón de María en Fátima." 49-79

Summary: The first part of this study presents the heart of Mary as the core subject matter of the apparitions in Fatima. Mary's heart is considered as the place where the covenant between God and humanity is mended. The second part proposes the apocalyptic approach to understand the happenings in Fatima as God’s self-revelation through the Immaculate Heart of Mary announcing His Mercy.

"Azcuy, Virginia R. Teresa de Lisieux, Una Biografia Mariana." 81-101

Summary: The author brings to light the merits and limitations of the different important studies on Teresa of Lisieux. She examines the studies of H.U. von Balthasar which emphasize the theological meaning of Teresa's itinerary of holiness; of Antonio Vázques which treat her psychological disposition affected by the loss of her mother in infancy; of François Marie Léthel, which highlight her Christ - centeredness with an integrated Marian dimension; and of Vicente Martínez Blat who concentrates on the Marian dimension of Teresa's life. The second part evaluates Teresa's Marian itinerary, in particular the profundity of her experiences and spiritual intuitions.

"Gaitán, José-Damian. María en Chiara Lubich." 103-117

Summary: The person of the BVM occupied a fundamental place in the personal life and experience of Chiara Lubich. The author shows her successive discoveries of the Marian mystery in a gospel meditation closely linked with her personal and group experiences, and with the Church’s itinerary from the 1940s in the twentieth century. These are part and parcel of the Focolare movement with its social, cultural and religious situations of our societies.

"Fernando, P.M. The Phenomenon of Mary in Asian Christianity: The Feminine Dimension of Faith." 119-131

Summary: The article discusses images of Mary, personal devotion to Mary, the role of Mary in personal life in various Asian cultures and societies based on 104 answers to an interdisciplinary (social, psychological and cultural-anthropological) questionnaire by participants in a course in Mariology. The study reveals that Mary stands for the feminine aspect of the affective dimension of the Christian faith which is very significant to a family centered culture.


Proceedings from 63. and 64. Conventions of the French Mariological Society in Lisieux (2006)
and Roche-du-Theil (2007)

- Sister M. Danielle Peters

Both conventions address the topic of evangelization and the role of the BVM as first evangelizer. In 2006 the various contributions sought to highlight Mary's place in the Church throughout the centuries, in particular by identifying the effect of catechesis and homilies as well as the missionary activities of religious congregations. Following are short synopses of the individual presentations:

"Gaucher, Guy. Thérèse de l’enfant Jésus (1873-1897), Marie et la Mission." 13- 26

The Martin family was both very devoted to the BVM and also rather engaged in the missionary activity of the church. Therese is said to have had three mothers: her biological mother who died during her childhood; her sister Pauline who raised her until she entered the Carmel and the BVM who healed her through her smile and whom she never ceased to venerate. At an early age the Little Flower entered the Carmel in order to save souls. She had wanted to join a Carmel in a missionary country but sickness prevented her from following this desire. As patron of missionaries she can now fulfill this call from eternity.

"Cotheney, Édouard. Racines de la mission dans l’Ancien Testament et figures Mariales." 27-40

This article explores the roots of mission and Marian figures in the Hebrew Scriptures. It shows that the Lord, at first considered as God of Israel was later recognized as God of all people. If Israel was first among its neighbors in recognizing the true God, Wisdom literature shows that Israel went beyond ethnic prejudices. According to Mt 23:15 Jewish missionaries shared their faith with pagans, but the first testament does not give any indication of that fact. The decisive role women played in the history of Israel casts light on Mary's role.

"Blanchard, Yves-Marie. Marie et l’annonce missionaire selon le Quatrième Évangile." 41-55

This paper sheds light on Mary as missionary in the fourth gospel. The author stresses that the Cana event as well as the scene on Golgotha lead to Mary's mission/title as Mother of the Church.
"Comby, Jean. Brève Histoire de l'Évangélisation." 57-69

Beginning with the Acts of the Apostles and continuing in the first Letter to the Corinthians (9:7), members of the consecrated life have been dedicated to missionary work and to the BVM. From the fourth century on Christianity became the official state religion. As missionary campaigns progressed, the rural areas and the Germanic people were evangelized. The great geographical discoveries are followed by organized mission methods leading from "tabula rasa to adaptation." During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries colonized missions coexist which proves either harmful or beneficial according to circumstances.

"Roten, Johann G. Marie dans l’enseignement missionnaire de l'Eglise au XXe Siècle." 71-102

This study examines JPII's Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortations on the state of the Church in the five continents. The theme of the new evangelization proclaimed by Paul VI in Evangelii nuntiandi and reiterated by John Paul II in Tertio millennio adveniente highlights Mary's historical and missionary role based on LG chapter 8, as well as Paul VI's Marian encyclical letters, John Paul's Redemptoris Mater and Benedict XVI'sDeus caritas est.

"Pivot, Maurice. Un État de la Théologie de la Mission aujourd'hui. Résonance de l'œuvre de l'Esprit Saint en Marie selon cette théologie." 103-117

The author picks up the question left open by J. Comby concerning the missionary work of the church after Vatican II and Mary's role therein. He identifies mutual hospitality and dialogue as crucial ingredients for evangelization ad Gentes. Developments in Marian studies after Vatican II promoted through post-Vatican papal teaching have also had an impact on missionary work.

The following monographs show the particular manner in which Mary conquers concrete missionary territory.

"Fraissinette, Agnès de. La Vierge de Guadalupe. Une conquête spirituelle et culturelle." 119-147

The author identifies Our Lady of Guadalupe whose apparitions in 1531 achieved a spiritual and cultural conquest. One of the extraordinary aspects of these apparitions is that Our Lady appeared as an indigenous woman and spoke in the local dialect. She is the spiritual mother of all people whose solicitude brought about an enormous stream of converts to the Catholic Church. The event of Guadalupe shows that Mary's universal maternity has a reconciling effect even among the most remote, humble and inconspicuous peoples and nations. Mary's missionary activity teaches us to live in harmony, mutual respect and peace with one another.

"Noye, Irénée. Une Mission qu’on appellera Ville-Marie." 149-161

This presentation elaborates on a Canadian lay person, Jérôme Le Royer de la Dauversière (1597-1659) who together with others founded Ville Marie. Joined with Jean-Jacques Olier, founder of the Sulpicians, and Gaston de Renty, superior of the Blessed Sacrament Fathers, he constituted in 1640 the Society of Our Lady for the moral conversion of those living in New France. Over the years their Marian mission work impacted other foundations and spiritualities.

"Stern, Jean. Notre Dame de la Salette. Celle qui vient d'ailleurs." 163-181

This article tells the story of Our Lady of La Salette. The author offers examples of how the message of La Salette has had an effect on the whole world. Our Lady of La Salette is also known as Reconciliatrix of all her spiritual children with her Son.

"Coulon, Paul. François Libermann (1802-1852) et le “cœur éminement apostolique” de Marie." 183-209

Among the many missionary congregations evolving in the nineteenth century is that founded in 1840 by François Liebermann (1802-1852) and called the Missionary Society of the Sacred Heart of Mary. After having accepted the dissolution of his society demanded by Rome, he entered the Holy Spirit seminary founded by Claude-François Poullart (1679-1709). On Pentecost, May 27, 1703, he consecrated himself together with twelve postulants to the Holy Spirit, invoking the assistance of the Immaculate Conception. His spirituality influenced the ensuing pneumatology.

"Pitaud, Bernard. Lavigerie (1825-1892). Les Pères Blancs et l'attachement à Marie." 211-236

J. Vandrisse elaborates on the influence Our Lady had on the foundations of Lavigerie. The church of St. Ann in Jerusalem commemorating the great mystery of the Immaculate Conception was entrusted to the White Fathers by the French government in the spring of 1878. During the same year, Lavigerie published a degree declaring the Immaculate Conception as Patroness of the Missionary Society of Africa, insisting on a relationship between the church of Our Lady of Africa with the church of St. Ann in Jerusalem.

"Pitaud, Bernard. La Vierge Marie chez Madeleine Delbrêl (1904-1964)." 219-236

In this study, Pitaud analyses Delbrêl’s writings, letters and poems. While she never intended to develop a Marian theme or any other theological subject with these writings, Pitaud’s analysis shows her personal relationship with Our Lady, in particular to the Seven Sorrows of Mary and to Our Lady of Grace, which is marked by confidence and a childlike faith. According to Debrêl, Mary could only assume her place in salvation history by reason of God’s choice and her personal holiness. Concerning this, Madeleine underlines Mary’s imitable character, in particular her self-effacement and awareness of God’s mercy.

Mary’s role in the life of Christians is that of forming them to the perfect resemblance of her Son. Mary always teaches us to do everything in and through Christ. She encourages as to practice silence and docility thanks to which the Holy Spirit enables us to do missionary work.

Estudios Marianos Vol LXXIV (2008)

Saint Ildelphonsus of Toledo (+ 667) and Hispanic features of Mariology

- P. Antonio del Larocca, S.M.C.

This volume presents Saint Ildelphonsus as the first Mariologist, ante litteram and evaluates his Mariological contribution to the Hispanic Church in the early centuries. The great apologetic work of St. Ildephonsus was directed against the criticism and the mistakes of Jewish and pagan influences on the doctrine of the virginity and motherhood of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a subject which in turn is related to the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption and her participation in the mystery of redemption through her spiritual motherhood.

The authors who contributed to this volume highlight four aspects of the teaching of St. Ildephonsus:

1) The influence of exegesis, patristics and apocryphal texts on the doctrine of the Assumption in the writings of St. Ildephonsus and the reaction of theologians from the West and the East.
2) The study of theological, ecclesial, cultural, and liturgical aspects of the person and mystic St. Ildephonsus.

3) St. Ildephonsus’ special contribution to consecration to the Virgin Mary, that even precedes that of St. John of Damascus.

4) The influence of his doctrine on the XVI-XVIII centuries of Hispanic modern theology. Without doubt, the first evangelization of overseas missions disseminated the tradition of Marian devotion of in St. Ildephonsus; in Europe we find also traces of his Mariological synthesis that marked a time of great development of Mariology.

We believe that the publication is a good working tool for further research, especially for possible work on the systematization of Mariology in Latin America as it is related to its Hispanic roots.

Estudios Marianos (2002)

–  Gloria Falcao Dodd

Volume 68 (2002) on “La Maternidad divine de María”(The Divine Maternity of Mary) published Biblical, patristic, systematic, historical, and liturgical presentations done in the 2001 Week of Studies sponsored by the Spanish Mariological Society.


“La maternidad divine de María en los Evangelios de la Infancia” (The Divine Maternity of Mary in the Gospel’s Infancy Narratives) Salvador Muñoz Iglesias. 9-24. Luke intentionally used imprecise formulas of Christ’s divinity to allow converted Jews who adhered to a strict monotheism to use these formulas both in literal and figurative senses in their new Christian faith.

“La maternidad divine de María: Lectura exegético-teológica de Gál 4,4)” (The Divine Maternity of Mary: an Exegetical-theological Reading of Gal. 4:4). Antonio M. Artola Arbiza. 25-45. Paul compressed Mary’s virginal motherhood of the Incarnate Son of God into the Greek phrase, “born of a woman.”


“El título de ‘Madre de Dios’ en la teología de los Padres anteriores a Éfeso” (The Title of “Mother of God” in the Theology of the Fathers Before the Council of Ephesus). Lucas F. Mateo-Seco. 47-68.


“Cristología, mariología, eclesiología. En torno al título de ‘María, madre de la Iglesia’” (Christology, Mariology, Ecclesiology, Surrounding the Title of “Mary, Mother of the Church.” José Arturo Domínguez Asensio. 69-94. Mary’s title as “Mother of the Church” expresses the II Vatican Council’s emphasis on the connection between Christ and His Body, the Church, by means of the Holy Spirit, for a re-integrated Mariology that had been split into two factions before the Council. Mary can be both a member and Mother of the Church, just as any mother is also a member of the family to whose existence she has contributed.

“María, templo por ser madre” (Mary, a Sanctuary in Order to Be a Mother) Antonio M.a Calero. 95-124. Attributed to St. Epiphanius, this phrase presents Mary as an analogous exemplar for all the baptized.


“María, Madre de Dios, en san Juan de Ávila” (Mary, Mother of God, in St. John of Avila). Andrés Molina Prieto. 125-136. St. John of Avila’s catechetical style with questions and answers as well as practical applications based his Mariology on the point that Mary knew that the child she was going to conceive was the Messiah, the Son of God, and Redeemer of mankind. A model to all priests to overcome any identity crisis, St. John of the Cross would be a good Doctor of the Church. [This author’s wish was later fulfilled by Pope Benedict XVI in 2011.]
“La maternidad divina en los teólogos españoles del signo XVII” (The divine maternity in the Spanish theologians of the seventeenth century). Enrique Llamas. 137-166.

“Mariología en las palabras de María según Pedro de Abreu, OFM (1617)” (Mariology in the Words of Mary According to Pedro de Abreu, OFM [1617]) Ismael Bengoechea. 167-181. Mary had the gift of prophecy as well as her other privileges.

“La maternidad divina de María en la M. Ágreda” (Mary’s Divine Maternity in Maria de Agreda’s Writings) Gaspar Calvo Moralejo. 183-201. According to Maria de Agreda’s mystical experiences, as Mother of God, Mary was elevated to the hypostatic order, higher than all other creatures and closest to God.

“Maternidad divine y maternidad spiritual en el pensamiento del P. Gabriel Jacquier (Divine Maternity and Spiritual Maternity in the Thought of Father Gabriel Jacquier) Águeda Rodríguez Cruz. 203-220. The French Vincentian, Father Gabriel Jacquier (1906-1942), presented the baptized as living spiritually “in the Heart of Mary” to emphasize that the vocation of the baptized is to love, as a complement to Montfort’s concept of living in Mary’s womb as the source of spiritual life.

“La maternidad divina en Joseph Moingt (The Divine Motherhood in Joseph Moingt) M. Ponce Cuéllar. 221-246. The rejection of the descending Christology of the past leaves Moingt’s reconstructive, ascending Christology imprecise and without a profession of faith in Mary’s divine maternity.


“La fiesta de la divina maternidad de María” (The Feast of Mary, Mother of God) Juan Miguel Ferrer. 247-259. The Roman rite’s universal feast set after Vatican II is rooted in the expression “Genitiricis Dei” that has been part of the Roman Canon since its first record around the time of the Council of Ephesus, while the celebration of Mary’s motherhood had its own Christmas-time liturgy at least since the construction of the Basilica of St. Mary Major in Rome.


“La maternidad divina de María en la mariología feminist” (The Divine Maternity of Mary in Feminist Mariology) José Antonio Riestra. 261-275. Feminist theology tends to be suspicious of Mary’s divine maternity as Christianity’s historical justification for subjugating women to men by limiting women to the home in order to bear and raise children; therefore, some feminist theologies reinterpret Mary from the viewpoint of ancient, pagan mother goddesses to present her divine maternity as an inappropriate divinization of a real woman or as an alternative way of expressing the maternal aspects of a God described theologically by men. However, many feminist perspectives are uncritically adopting anthropological, psychological or sociological positions that are not necessarily scientific, and often lack sufficient attention to Divine Revelation and the theological tradition of the Church.


“La Asunción de María en la Iglesia, en el Císter y en Poblet” (The Assumption of Mary in the Church, in the Cistercians, and in the Monastery of Poblet ) Jordi M. Bou I Simó. 277-288. Mary’s Assumption is presented as the Easter of the Virgin Mother.

“Bibliografía Mariológica Española 2000 (por autores)” (The Spanish Mariological Bibliography for 2000 [by authors]). 289-310.

“Bibliografía Mariológica Española 2000 (por materias)” (The Spanish Mariological Bibliography for 2000 [by subject]). 311-333

Estudios Marianos (2001)

Gloria Falcao Dodd

Volume 67 (2001) on the Trinity and Mary published the opening speech by the Pope’s envoy to PAMI’s twentieth Mariological-Marian Congress held in Rome in 2000 for the Great Jubilee Year’s theme of the Trinity, as well as a selection of the papers presented at the Spanish–language sessions with liturgical, systematic, and historical approaches to the jubilee theme of the Trinity.

“El misterio de la Santísima Trinidad y la Santísima Virgen María” (The Mystery of the Most Holy Trinity and the Blessed Virgin Mary) Cardinal Jorge Medina Estévez. 3-16.

Themes about Roman Liturgy:

“La celebración del misterio cristiano en communion con María en la Liturgia Romana” (The celebration of the Christian mystery in communion with Mary in the Roman Liturgy). Bishop Juliá López Martín. 17-68. – He studied the Latin of the Roman canon, the ordo of the Mass, and the forward of the Collection of Marian Masses, to present Mary as the eschatological icon/exemplar of the church, present in the liturgy, so that the Church may celebrate the liturgy with Mary and as Mary, for the glory of the Trinity.

“María y la Santísima Trinidad en la liturgia Hispano-Mozárabe. Aproximación al tema desde la Misa del Común de Santa María” (Mary and the Blessed Trinity in the Hispanic-Mozarabic Liturgy: Approaching the Theme as found in the Mass of the Common of the Blessed Virgin.) D. Juan Miguel Ferrer. 69-83

Systematic theme:

“Alcance y límites de una Mariología trinitaria” (Scope and Limits of a Trinitarian Mariology). D. Miguel Ponce Cuéllar. 85-117. Historical themes:

“La Santísima Trinidad y la Madre de Jesús en pasajes neotestamentarios según algunos exegetas españoles” (The Blessed Trinity and the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament Passages According to Some Spanish Exegetes). P. Luis Díez Merino. 119-161. Selecting only two from the 350 Spanish Biblical exegetical works from the sixteenth century, this paper compared the Marian commentaries by Juan Maldonado and Francisco de Toledo, with two from the twentieth century by the Dominican professors of the University of Salamanca and the professors of the Spanish Jesuits.

“La Trinidad y María en a primera teología española” (The Trinity and Mary in the Early Spanish Theology). D. Lucas F. Mateo-Seco. 163-186. – St. Ildephonsus of Toledo as well as Visigothic and Mozarabic texts.

“Aspectos trinitarios en la mariología posconciliar española” (Trinitarian Aspects of the Post-conciliar Spanish Mariology). D. Juan Antonio Mateo García. 187-208. Although a Trinitarian approach is rare, more attention has been given to pneumatology.

“Bibliografía Mariológica Española 1999” (Spanish Bibliography 1999).
D. José Antonio Riestra. 211-260.

Estudios Marianos (2000)

Gloria Falcao Dodd

Volume 66 (2000) on Dios Padre y María (God the Father and Mary) published Biblical, systematic, and historical presentations done in 1999 with the jubilee preparation theme of the Year of the Father.

Biblical themes:

“Dios Padre y la Madre de Jesús en el Nuevo Testamento” P. Luis Díez Merino C.P. (pp. 3-48)

“God the Father and the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament” --Based on Lk. 1:35 and Is. 12:6, Mary is traditionally called the daughter of the Father, although she has also been described as the Father’s spouse, co-parent, mother, beloved, collaborator, slave/handmaid, as well as temple, spouse, and beloved of the Holy Trinity. As the “complement” of the Trinity, Mary is the one in whom the Trinity indwells completely, or who adds something to the Trinity, although this term has been nuanced in various ways.

“El Magnificat, canto al Padre de las misericordias” (“The Magnificat, a Canticle to the Father of Mercies”) D. Miguel Ponce Cuéllar (49-82) agrees with Muñoz Iglesias that the original author of the Magnificat is not Mary, nor Luke, but rather a Jewish-Christian Palestinian who originally wrote it in Hebrew.

“María, Hija de Sión, en su relación al Padre” (“Mary, Daughter of Zion, in Her Relation to the Father”) D. José Arturo Domínguez Asensio (83-109).

“María, sierva de Dios Padre” (“Mary, Handmaid of God the Father”) P. Antonio María Calero S.D.B. (111-147). In continuity with the Old Testament’s description of the Chosen People and various prophets as a “slave/servant of the Lord,” Mary’s servitude in the light of the Incarnate Word opens her to a wonderful and mysterious Trinitarian relationship in which she recognizes the disproportion of her insignificant part in comparison to the greatness of God and the messianic work in which she collaborates with all of her being. Paradoxically her slavery elevates her as the chosen daughter to the highest level of human cooperation in God’s redemption and also to a model for the Church as the first and principal servant of all humanity by giving them the Redeemer.

Systematic themes:

“El Padre y María en nuestra filiación de gracia” (“The Father and Mary in Our Adoption by Grace”) P. Cándido Pozo S.I. (149-162). The motherhood of Mary with respect to our state of grace has, as a consequence, her maternal solicitude so that we live as sons of the Father, brothers of Christ, and temples of the Holy Spirit, which implies an opening to the Gospel just as Mary showed in her response to her calling by the angel.

Speculative: “Fundamento trinitario para la nueva síntesis mariana” (A Trinitarian Foundation for a New Marian Synthesis”) D. Gonzalo Gironés (163-178). This author reverses the Scotistic principle that the Incarnation was not conditional on sin, to say that sin exists only because the Incarnation was pre-seen, because, if sin has an infinite scope, as it does when it merits hell, then the human act must also have the possibility of infinite grace, which is dependent upon the mediation of the Incarnate Son. By this infinite grace, Mary’s incorporation into Christ, the head of His Body in which all Christians have been incorporated, is so complete that she has a re-echoing mediation, a redundant and subordinate headship, as Mother, for the incorporation of the rest of the body of Christ, to allow them, by the distinct action of the Holy Spirit, to have a direct and personal relationship as the child of God the Father. Christ is the one sent, but He is not the purpose of His being sent.

Historical Tradition:

Patristic: “Gálatas 4, 4 en la doctrina mariana patrística griega” (“Galatians 4:4 in the Marian Doctrine of the Greek Fathers”) D. Lucas Fancisco Mateo-Seco (179-213).

Liturgical: “El título ‘Hija de Sión’ en la fiesta de Santa María: Una aproximación litúrgica al tema de las relaciones de María con Dios Padre” (“The title ‘Daughter of Zion’ in the Feast of St. Mary: A Liturgical Approximation of the Theme of Mary’s Relationships with God the Father”) D. Juan Miguel Ferrer (215-227). An examination of both the Mass texts and the texts of the Divine Office for this feast on December 18 in the Spanish Mozarabic rite.

“Relaciones de María con el Padre en la Mariología española del siglo XVII” (“Relationships of Mary with the Father in the Spanish Mariology of the Seventeenth Century”) P. Enrique Llamas O.C.D. (229-271).

“Dios Padre y María Madre en Santa Teresa de Lisieux Doctora de la Iglesia” (“God the Father and Mother Mary in St. Therese of Lieieux, Doctor of the Church”) P. Isamel Bengoechea O.C.D. (273-286).

“Dios Padre y María en la experiencia mística de la M. Ángeles Sorazu (1873-1921)” (“God the Father and Mary in the mystical experience of Mother M. Ángeles Sorazu [1873-1921]”) P. Gaspar Calvo, O.F.M. (287-312).

“María, Hija predilecta del Padre, en la enseñanza del Beato Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer” (“Mary, Favorite Daughter of the Father, in the Teaching of Bl. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer”) D. Antonio Aranda (313-342) .

“El Padre y María en el Magisterio posconciliar” (“The Father and Mary in the Post-conciliar Magisterium”) D. Juan Luis Bastero de Eleizalde (343-365).

Analysis of part of JP II’s work: “María, ejemplo perfecto de amor, tanto a Dios como al prójimo (TMA, 54)” (“Mary, Perfect Example of Love, Both of God and of Neighbor [Tertio Millenio Adveniente, 54]”) D. Andrés Molina Prieto (367- 387).

“La constentación de la paternidad de Dios y la teología feminista” (“The Irrevocability of the Paternity of God and Feminist Theology”) D. José Antonio Riestra (389-430).

(Long form) Feminists in general protest against the description of God as Father as a projection of a patriarchal society to justify male domination and oppression of women, and as an idolatry of the male that violates the truth of God’s transcendence that is equally manifest in maternal or feminine images, e.g. “Spirit” and “Wisdom.” While agreeing with feminism that God’s transcendence goes beyond human images, the author noted that even the maternal images of God are culturally conditioned and run the risk of sentimentalism. In addition, God’s Fatherhood has been divinely revealed by Jesus as the Prime Analogate for human fatherhood and motherhood.

Christian feminists generally distrust the Bible as an andro-centric text that requires reinterpretation and decontamination, or even rejection, to find the important Mother Goddess devotions that had been forgotten or suppressed. These feminists perceive Mary to be a tool created by a masculine hierarchy to subjugate women by presenting them with passive receptivity as their ideal. Mary’s “Magnificat” is understood as an explosive cry for the liberation of women rebelling against a male-dominated and oppressive church. While Latin-American and Asian feminists reject white or Euro-American images of Mary as symbols of the oppressors, Christian symbols are understood to be not intrinsically misogynist, but only misinterpreted as such from the androcentric perspective.

Finding little in the Bible about Mary as an historical figure or a theological ideal, some feminists tend to violate their professed historical-critical method by simply imagining what Mary did. The feminist claims about the pagan cult of the Mother Goddess being transferred by Christianity into Marian devotion and the belief in Mary’s virginal motherhood are refuted by the Patristic rejection of these pagan religions and any syncretism with them. The feminist proposal that Mary is the Christian presentation of the Ideal Woman projected by everyone’s psychological needs ignores the historical reality. The feminist hypothesis that Mary’s maternity is used by men to subjugate women to motherhood degrades the true feminine value and dignity of motherhood—a degradation facilitated by the possibility of separating sexual activity from procreation. As sexually-liberated people, feminists perceive Mary’s virginity as another creation of male clergy obsessed with imposing chastity on women to make them more like men who do not bear children, and the combination of Mary’s virginity with her motherhood as creating an impossible ideal to humiliate real women; feminists often then reject the reality of Mary’s virginity, because this doctrine is understood as an implicit Old Testament rejection of female sexuality as impure, and therefore a rejection of an Incarnational theology with its New Testament redemption of the physical world, including women. Feminists value Mary’s discipleship, her motherhood as her free, active, and personal choice, and her virginity as woman’s autonomy from man, as well as God’s judgment against a patriarchal society.

“Dios Padre y María en la pastoral del Santuario de Torreciudad” (“God the Father and Mary in the Pastoral Letter of the Sanctuary of Torreciudad”) D. Javier Mora-Figueroa (431-451).

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