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Marian Teachings Pre-Early Modern Period

Magisterial Teaching about Mary (372-1547)

Teachings of the Popes and Councils on the Blessed Virgin Mary

– Father Johann Roten, S.M.
– Documents provided here are the research work of Stuart Schafer and M. Jean Frisk

The bibliography below attempts to list the teachings, which include Mary, of the popes and councils of the Catholic Church up to the Council of Trent in 1545. Marian content is briefly summarized in brackets. Sources are listed below. Your assistance in providing titles and texts unknown to us and in various languages will be greatly appreciated.


St. Damasus I (366-384)

Letters from 372-378

Letter Fragment II to the Eastern Bishops Against Marcellus of Ancyra and Apollinaris of Laodicea 
"[Some] say that our Lord and Savior assumed an incomplete humanity without intellectuality. "
Marian Text: [against Christology denying rational soul in the Person of Christ]
Published in Latin (DH0146=CMP III, 1660); here with our English translation

Letter III to Bishop Paulinus of Antioch
"The Catholic Church anathematizes those who say that the Word abode in the Lord's flesh in place of a human intellect as well as those who confess two sons..."
Marian Text: [against Christology denying rational soul in the Person of Christ]
Published in Latin (DH0148=CMP III, 1661); here with our English translation

Council of Rome

First Council of Constantinople (381)

Son of Antonius, Roman (Spaniard ?) [Source: The Book of the Popes, F. J. Bayer, 1922]
Tome of Damasus (Letter IV) to Bishop Paulinus of Antioch

"(5) We anathematize Photinus who, renewing the heresy of Ebion, confesses that the Lord Jesus Christ was of Mary only. (6) We anathematize those who say (there are) two Sons, one eternal, and the other after the assumption of flesh from the Virgin. "
Marian Text: [against Christologies denying divine nature or rational soul in the Person of Christ]
Published in Latin and English (DH0157-8=CMP III, 1662-3; D0063-4)

Son of the Roman citizen Tiburtius. The first to call himself "Papa" (Pope)
St. Siricius (384-398)
Letter 9 to Anysius Against Bonosus 3-4
"We certainly cannot refuse the justly censured opinion which your holiness rightly abhorred concerning sons of Mary, that from the same virginal womb from which Christ was born according to the flesh, another offspring came forth.
Marian Text: [virginitas post partum]
Published in Latin (CMP III, 2031); here with our English translation

St. Celestine I (422-432)

Council of Rome (430)

Council of Ephesus (431)
Third Ecumenical Council

Son of Priscus, Italian of the Campagna
Cyril of Alexandria's 3rd Letter to Nestorius
30 November 430
"If anyone does not confess that God is truly Emmanuel, and that on this account the Holy Virgin is the Mother of God (for according to the flesh she gave birth to the Word of God become flesh by birth), let him be anathema."
Marian Text: [Definition of Theotokos (Mother of God, or more precisely, Godbearer)]
Published in Greek and English (DH0252ff; D0113ff)

Colonna, son of Sixtus, Roman
St. Sixtus III (432-440)
Formula of Union between Cyril of Alexandria and the Bishops of Antioch
early 433
"According to this unmingled unity we confess the holy Virgin Mother of God..."
Marian Text: [holy Virgin Mary, Mother of God]
Published in Greek and English(DH0272; D5003)

Son of Quintinian, Italian of Tuscany
St Leo I (the Great) (440-461)

Council of Chalcedon (451)
4th Ecumenical Council
5th Session, October 451
"the Pneumatomachoi... babbling that what was born of the holy Virgin Mary was a mere man"
Marian Text: [Virgin Mary, Mother of God; Divine Nature]
Published in Greek (DH0300); here with our English translation
Brief summary and outline: Mary Page [] Marian Dogmas

5th Session, October 451
Marian Text: [Definition of Two Natures, One Person]
Published in Greek (DH0301; D0148)


Sermon 21 on the Nativity of Christ I, 1-2
25 December 440
"She conceives an offspring (both divine and human) in her spirit–before she does so in her body... Appropriately, this birth of salvation brought no corruption whatsoever to the Virgin's integrity..."
Marian Text: [Mary conceived in the spirit before she conceived in the flesh; virginitas in partu]
Published in Latin and English (CMP VI, 6254; FOC 93, 77-78)

Sermon 22, on the Nativity of Christ II (Recension B), 2
25 December 441
"For a virgin to conceive, for a virgin to give birth, and for her to remain a virgin (which we believe), falls outside the realm of normal human experience."
Marian Text: [perpetual virginity]
Published in Latin and English (CMP VI, 6257; FOC 93, 81-82)

Sermon 26, on the Nativity of Christ VI, 1
25 December 450
"...the Maker of the world brought forth from a virginal womb"
Marian Text: [virginitas ante partum et in partu]
Published in Latin and English (CMP VI, 6268; FOC 93, 104-105)

Sermon 27, on the Nativity of Christ VII, 2
25 December 451
"...a womb made fruitful by the Holy Spirit and never to lack virginity"
Marian Text: [perpetual virginity]
Published in Latin and English (CMP VI, 6271; FOC 93, 111)

Sermon 29, on the Nativity of Christ IX, 2
25 December 453
"By the same Spirit through whom Christ was born from the body of an undefiled mother, Christians are reborn from the womb of the Holy Church."
Marian Text: [virginitas ante partum]
Published in Latin and English (CMP VI, 6275; FOC 93, 122)

Sermon 31, on the Epiphany I, 1
6 January 441
"We have just celebrated the day when undefiled virginity brought forth a Savior for the human race."
Marian Text: [virginitas in partu]
Published in Latin and English (CMP VI, 6282; FOC 93, 132)

Apostolic Letters

Letter 028 To Flavian, Bishop of Constantinople

13 June 449
Letter 028 To Flavian, Bishop of Constantinople

"He was truly conceived of the Holy Spirit within the womb of His Virgin Mother, who bore Him while preserving her virginity just as, preserving her virginity, she conceived Him."
Marian Text: [virginitas in partu]
Published in Latin and English (DH0291; FOC 34, 93-94)

Son of the Roman citizen and priest Peter
St. Anastasius II (496-498)

Apostolic Letter: Pseudo-Gelasius Letter 2 to Laurentius of Lignido

"After [He had received] the holy Virgin's consent, when she said to the angel 'Behold the handmaid of the Lord; let it be done to me according to your word (Lk 1:38), He considered it fitting to build for Himself a temple..."

Marian Text: [Mary's consent]
Published in Latin (DH0357=CMP VI, 6424); here with our English translation

Son of Fortunatus, Italian of Sardinia
St. Symmachus (498-514)
Ever virgin and Mother of God () (Text noted in bibliographies; not yet located by our staff)

Son of Justus, father of Pope Silverius, Italian of Frusino (Campagna)
St. Hormisdas (514-523)

Letter 79 to the Emperor Justin, 10
26 March 521
"[both natures were united]in the womb of the holy Virgin Mother of God Mary "
Marian Text: [Ever virgin and Mother of God]
Published in Latin (DH0368=CMP VI, 6493); here with our English translation

Mercurius, son of Projectus, arch-priest of St. Peter's, Roman
John II (533-535)

Letter 3 To the Senators of Constantinople
March 534
"...the glorious Holy ever Virgin Mary is acknowledged by Catholic men [to be] both properly and truly the one who bore God, and the Mother of God's Word, become incarnate from her. "
Marian Text: [Virgin Mary, true Mother of God]
Published in Latin and English (DH0401=CMP VI, 6822; D0202)

Son of the deacon (consul?) John, papal apocrisiarius in Constantinople, Roman
Vigilius (537) (540-555)

Letter: First Apostolic Constitution on the Three Chapters to the Emperor Justinian, 1
14 May 553
"Whoever... does not believe that the holy Virgin is truly the Mother of God, but is only named so on account of the Word, let him be anathema."
Marian Text: [Virgin Mary, true mother of Jesus Christ]
Published in Latin (DH0416); here with our English translation

Council of Constantinople II (553)

5th Ecumenical Council
8th Session, 2 June 553, Canon 2
"...the same came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the holy and glorious Mother of God and ever Virgin Mary"

Marian Text: [Ever Virgin Mary, Mother of God]
Published in Greek and English (DH0422; D0214)
Brief summary and outline: Mary Page []

Son of the consul Petronius, Italian of the Campagna
Honorius I (625-638)

6th Synod of Toledo
9 January 638
"...assumed humanity without sin by the ever-virgin Mary"
Marian Text: [Ever Virgin Mary]
Published in Latin (DH0491); here with our English translation

Son of Theodore, bishop of Jerusalem, Greek (born in Jerusalem ?)
Theodore I (642-649)

Noted in bibliographies; text not yet located

Note: Theodore belonged to the Greek clergy in Jerusalem. He decisively led the battle against monotheism and prepared the Lateran synod of 649. Under him the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord was celebrated in Rome for the first time. [Source: Marienlexikon, Vol. 5, p. 379]

Son of Fabricius, priest and papal apocrisiarius to Constantinople, Italian of Todi (Tuscany)
St. Martin I (649-653 (655)

Profession of Faith
Lateran Synod
5th Session, 31 October 649, Canons 2-4
"If anyone does not properly and truly confess in accord with the holy Fathers, that the holy Mother of God and ever Virgin and immaculate Mary... [Canon 3]"
Marian Text: [Mary, ever virgin, Mother of God]
Published in Greek, Latin, and English (DH0502-0504; D0255-0257)

[Deusdedit] Son of the Roman citizen Jovianus, Benedictine (?)
Adeodatus II (672-676)

Profession of Faith, Article 36
11th Synod of Toledo
November 675
"...the person of the Son became true man without sin from the holy and immaculate Virgin Mary..."
Marian Text: [holy, immaculate Virgin Mary]
Published in Latin and English (DH0533-0536; D0282-0285)

(Agathon), Benedictine (?), Italian of Sicily (Greek nationality)
St. Agatho (678-681)

Council of Constantinople III Definition of Two Wills in Christ
6th Ecumenical Council
18th Session, 16 September 681)
"...and of the Virgin Mary properly and truly the mother of God according to humanity..."
Marian Text: [True Mother of God]
Published in Greek and English (DH0555; D0290)

Son of Tiberius, Benedictine or Basilian monk, Syrain (born at Palermo)
St. Sergius I (687-701)

Liber Pontificalis 86:14
"He decreed that on the days of the Lord's Annunciation, of the Falling-asleep and Nativity of St. Mary the ever-virgin Mother of God, and of St. Simeon..."
Marian Text: [Origin in Roman Liturgy of Agnus Dei, Annunciation, Assumption, Nativity of Mary, and Presentation of the Lord]
Published in Latin and English (Liber Pontificalis vol I, p. 376; TTH 06, 89); here English only

Son of Plato, Greek of Rossano, Calabria
John VII (705-707)

St. Peter's Basilica, Altar of the Nativity, anterior curve of lower arch
"John Servant of holy Mary Mother of God"
Marian Text: [Consecration to Mary]
Latin|Greek inscription
Published in DACL article ("Jean VII", vol. 7, p. 2211); here with our English translation

Savelli, son of Marcellus, Benedictine, Roman
St. Gregory II (715-731)

Apostolic Letter:
Letter to Emperor Leo III
"When we say... Holy Mother of God, Mother of the Lord, intercede with your Son our true God to save our souls..."
Marian Text: [Profession of Faith and veneration of images of Mary; Intercession of Mary]
Published in Greek (DH0581); here with our English translation

Benedictine (?), Syrian
St. Gregory III (731-741)

Council of Rome II 732
Gregory III tried unsuccessfully to hinder the disputes with Emperor Leo II regarding iconoclasm. At a synod in Rome in 731, the following decision was taken: "Whoever destroys the images, particularly of Our Lord Jesus Christ and his spotless and glorious Mother, the ever Virgin, separates himself from the unity of the Church." [Source: Marienlexikon, Vol. 3, p. 16, our translation]
Marian Text: [Veneration of images of Mary]

Orsini, son of Constantine, Benedictine, Roman
Stephen III (752-757)

Marian Text: [Concerning Mary]
(Noted in bibliographies; text not yet located)

Colonna, son of Duke Theodolus (?), Roman
Adrian I (772-795)

Council of Nicea II
7th Ecumenical Council
7th Session, 13 October 787
"as the figure of the honored and life-giving Cross, so the venerable and holy images... must be suitably placed in the holy churches of God, both on sacred vessels and vestments, and on the walls and on the altars, at home and on the streets, namely such images of our Lord Jesus Christ, God and Savior, and of our undefiled lady, or holy Mother of God..."
Marian Text: [Veneration of Images of Mary]
Published in Greek and English (DH0600; D0302)

Son of the Roman citizen, Asupius, Benedictine (?), Roman
St. Leo III (795-816)

Profession of Faith
Synod of Friuli
796 or 797
"By nature Son to the mother according to humanity, however, true Son to the Father in both natures."
Marian Text: [Divine Maternity]
Published in Latin and English (DH0619; D0314a + our supplement)

Colonna (?), son of Talarus, Benedictine (?), Roman, Cardinal-priest
Adrian II (867-872)

4th Council of Constantinople
10th Session, 28 February 879, Canon 3
"If, therefore anyone does not adore the image of Christ the Savior, let him not see His form when He will come in paternal glory to be glorified and to glorify His saints [2 Thess. 1:10]; but let him be separated from His communion and glory; likewise, however, also the image of Mary, His undefiled Mother, and Mother of God..."
Marian Text: [Veneration of Images of Mary]
Published in Latin, Greek and English (DH0653-0656; D0337)

Bruno, Count of Egisheim and Dagsburg, son of Count Hugo, Benedictine, German of Alsace.
St. Leo IX (1049-1054)

Profession of Faith
Letter to Peter of Antioch
13 April 1053
"I believe also that the Son of God the Father, the Word of God, was born eternally before all time from the Father... born of the Holy Spirit from the ever virgin Mary in time"
Marian Text: [Mary Ever Virgin]
Published in Latin and English (DH0681; D0344)

Hildebrand, son of the carpenter Bonizus; Benedictine of Cluny, Chancellor of the Roman Church, previously Papal Nuncio of Germany, Chaplain to Gregory VI, Italian of Soana, Piedmont
St. Gregory VII (1073-1085)

Profession of Faith
Synod of Rome, Profession of Faith Imposed on Berengarius of Tours
11 February 1079
"...after consecration it is the true body of Christ which was born of the Virgin and which, offered for the salvation of the world, was suspended on the Cross..."
Marian Text: [Eucharist if body of Christ born of Mary]
Published in Latin and English (DH0700; D0355)

Otho of Châtillon, Benedictine of Cluny, Frenchman of Rheims
Urban II (1088-1099)

Preface of the Virgin
Marian Text: [Dormition]
Published in Latin Missale Romanum editio princeps
English translation Saint Joseph Continuous Sunday Missal

Roland Bandinelli; Italian of Siena, professor at Bologna, Cardinal-deacon, Cardinal-priest, and Chancellor of the Roman Church
Alexander III (1159-1181)

Apostolic Letter:
Letter to the Sultan of Iconium
"Mary conceived without shame, bore without pain, and migrated from this world without corruption, according to the word of the angel, or better yet the word of God through the angel, that she was full of grace, not half full of grace..."
Marian Text: [Profession of Faith; Dormition]
Published in Latin and English Latin (DH0748); here with our English translation

Lothaire Conti, Count of Segni and Marsi, Italian of Anagni, Cardinal-deacon, Cardinal-priest of S. Pudentiana
Innocent III (1198-1216)

Lateran Council IV
12th Ecumenical Council
11-30 November 1215, Chapter 1, The Catholic Faith
"... conceived of Mary ever Virgin with the Holy Spirit cooperating..."
Marian Text: [Profession of Faith; Mary Ever Virgin]
Published in Latin and English (DH0801; D0429)

Sermons (in PL217)

1 on Times of the Year, First Sunday of Advent
Marian Text: [Mary, virgin of Advent: Mary, virgin]
Published in Latin (PL217, 314-319)

8 on Times of the Year, Sunday after Epiphany
Marian Text: [Wedding Feast at Cana]
Published in Latin (PL217, 346-350)

11 on Saints, Birth of Holy Mary
Marian Test: [sprout of the root of the David]
Published in Latin (PL217, 497-503)

12 on Saints, Purification of Mary
Marian Test: [Purification of Mary]
Published in Latin (PL217, 506-514)

14 on Saints, Annunciation
Marian Text: [Annunciation]
Published in Latin (PL217, 522-526)

27 on Saints, Assumption of Mary
Marian Text: [Assumption]
Published in Latin (PL217, 575-582)

28 on Saints, Assumption of Mary
Marian Text: [Assumption]
Published in Latin (PL217, 582-586)

29 on Saints, Birth of Mary
Marian Text: [Superiority over the Apostles]
Published in Latin (PL217, 586-587)

Hymn to the Virgin & Recourse to Mary
Marian Text: [praise and intercession]
Published in Latin (PL217, 917-918)

Encomium of Mary
Marian Text: [Sprout]
Published in Latin (PL217, 915-916)

Cencio Savelli, Roman, Cathedral Canon and Chamberlain, Cardinal-deacon, Cardinal-priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo
Honorius III (1216-1227)

Granting of the privilege of favor known as an indulgence.
In 1221, at the request of Francis of Assisi, Pope Honorius II granted an indulgence to the Portiuncula, the little chapel restored by Francis and now located inside of the church, Santa Maria degli Angeli, Assisi, Italy ( This chapel dedicated to Saint Mary of the Angels was considered by Francis as the place of foundation for the Franciscans. [Source: Marienlexikon, Vol. 3, p. 242; see also Catholic Encyclopedia online]

Ugolino Conti, Count of Segni, Italian of Anagni, Papal chaplain, Archpriest of St. Peter's, Cardinal-deacon, Cardinal-archbishop of Ostia
Gregory IX (1227-1241)

Sinebald Fieschi, Count of Lavagna, Italian of Genoa, Benedictine, Canon of Parma, Vice-chancellor, Cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina
Innocent IV (1243-1254)

Papal Brief "Quoniam"
26 April 1244
In a decree of April 26, 1244 Innocent IV (1243-1254) grants special indulgences to the faithful who visit the churches of the Hermits of Saint Augustine on feast days honoring Our Lord, Our Lady and certain saints.
Marian Text: [Celebration of Mary's birth]
Published in Latin (BR03, 507-508)

Papal Brief "Quae honorem"
1 September 1247
Acceding to a request from the Carmelites, Innocent IV (1243-1254) in a letter of September 1, 1247 approves some mitigations in the Carmelite rule, a rule that had been approved by Honorius III (1216-1227).
Marian text: [Carmelite Scapular]
Published in Latin (BR03, 535-536)

James Pantaléon, Court-Palais, son of a shoemaker (tanner), Cistercian (?), Frenchman of Troyes, Bishop of Verdun, Patriarch of Jerusalem. Died at Perugia
Urban IV (1261-1264)

Bull "Sol ille"
23 December 1261
Marian Text: [Virtue of the Rosary]
Published in Latin [BR03, 676-682]

Theobald Visconti, Italian of Piacenza, Arch-deacon of Liege, died at Arezzo
Gregory X (1271-1276)

Second Council of Lyons
Letter of Michael Paleologus to Gregory
14th Ecumenical Council
4th Session, 6 July 1274
" We believe that the same Son of God, the Word of God, is eternally born from the Father... temporally born from the Holy Spirit and Mary ever Virgin with a rational soul..."
Marian Text: [Mary Ever Virgin]
Published in Latin and English (DH0852; D0462-0463)

John Cajetan Orsini, Roman. Cardinal-deacon and Grand Inquisitor, died at Suriano near Viterbo
Nicholas III (1277-1280)

Noted in bibliographies; text not yet located

Jerome Masci, Italian of Ascoli in Piceno, General of the Minorites, Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina
Nicholas IV (1288-1292)

Bull of the year 1288

Pope Nicholas IV was the first Franciscan pope. He is noted for having embellished the apses of St. Mary Major, having defended the teaching on the Immaculate Conception, and having decreed an indulgence for the reconstruction of the Church of Our Lady in Mainz, German, that had been destroyed by fire. He also built a palace next to St. Mary Major. His sepulcher is in St. Mary Major. [Source: Mareinlexikon, Vol. 4, p. 623]

Nicholas Boccasini, son of a shepherd, Italian of Treviso, General of the Domincan Order, Cardinal-bishop of Ostia. Died at Perugia of poison
Blessed Benedict XI (1303-1304)

Bull “Dum levamus”
11 February 1304
Marian text: [Renewed approbation of the Servites, who are devoted affectionately to the Blessed Virgin Mary]
Published in Latin [BR4, 176-177]

Bull “Religiosam vitam”
14 March 1304
Marian text: [This bull insures protection to several Benedictine monasteries, among them several dedicated to Mary under various titles or places.]
Published Latin [BR4, 177a-180]

Raymund Bertrand de Goth, Frenchman of Billandreau (Gascony-Aquitaine), Canon of Bordeaux, Vicar General of Lyons, Papal chaplain, Bishop of Cominges, Archbishop of Bordeaux, crowned at Lyons, died at Roquemaure
Clement V (1305-1314)

Council of Vienna (1311-1312)
Profession of Faith (text not yet located)

Marian text: Clement V is known for a sermon in which he defends Mary's assumption into heaven. He rejects the Immaculate Conception. (text not yet located)
[Source: Marienlexikon II, p. 69]

James Armand d'Euse, Frenchman of Ossa (Guienne), son of a cobbler or of a merchant family, lawyer, tutor to the sons of King Charles II of Naples, Cardinal-bishop of Porto and Bishop of Avignon, elected at Lyons, died at Avignon
John XXII (1316-1334)

Marian text: Assumption of Mary [text not yet located]. According to the Marienlexikon, Vol. 3, p. 388, John XXII stressed that Mary was conceived with original sin and that her soul was created without original justification. [Source: Marienlexikon II, p. 69]

Peter Roger de Beaufort, Frenchman, Benedictine, Dean of the Sorbonne in Paris, Bishop of Artois, Archbishop of Rouen, Cardinal-priest of SS. Nereus et Achilleus, Administrator of the diocese of Avignon, elected at Avignon, died near Avignon
Clement VI (1342-1352)

Marian text: In 1350 Clement ordered that the curia pray the Marian antiphons at the close of Compline. This custom is frequently practiced today where the Liturgy of the Hours are prayed in community. Ninety of his sermons are extant. He rejects the teaching of the Immaculate Conception.

Peter Roger de Beaufort, Frenchman, Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria Nuova, elected at Avignon, died in Rome
Gregory XI (1370-1378)

Last of the Avignon popes. Gregory fostered devotion to Mary by requiring that the Avignon curia celebrate the Feast of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Temple. This is verified from 1377 on. Pope Gregory also approved the celebration of the feast in several dioceses. He is buried in Santa Maria Nova in Rome. [Source: Marienlexikon, Vol. 3, p. 16]

Bartholomew Prignano, Italian of Naples, Bishop of Acerenza, Archbishop of Bari (last Pope who was not a Cardinal)
Urban VI (1378-1389)

Listed in bibliographies; text not found.

Peter Tomacelli, Italian of Naples, Papal acolyte, Cardinal-deacon, Cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia
Boniface IX (1389-1404)

Bull “Superni benignitas”
9 November 1390
Marian Text: [Regarding the institution of the Feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary on July 2nd]
Published in Latin (BR04, 602-604)

Otho Colonna, Roman, Papal Protonotary, Auditor, Nuncio, Administrator of the diocese of Palestrina, Cardinal-deacon of S. George in Velabro
Martin V (1417-1431)

Confirmation of the Rule of the Third Order of the Brothers and Sister Servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Marian Text: [Along with the paragraphs of the rule are also featured the liturgical feasts to be celebrated and prayers]
Published in Latin (BR04, 702-707) (text not included here)

Gabriel Condulmer, Venetian, Celestinian hermit (?), Papal Treasurer, Protonotary, Bishop of Siena, Cardinal-priest in different parts of Rome
Eugene IV (1431-1447)

Council of Basil (1439)
[Concerning the Immaculata]
Apostolic Constitution “Advesperascente”
Marian Text: [According to a quote from Leo XIII, Pope Eugene spread the devotion of the rosary throughout the countries of the East. Text of the original document not yet located. Source: Advesperascente issued in 1439, cited by Leo XIII in Adiutricem, Enc. Letter, 28]

Council of Florence (1438-1445)
Bull “Exultate Deo” -- Concerning union with the Armenians
22 November 1439
Marian Text: [The document reaffirms the teachings on the beliefs agreed upon at Councils: the Creed on Trinity, on the humanity of Jesus Christ, and on the sacraments]
Published in Latin (BR05, 044-051)

Bull “Cantate Domino” -- Concerning union with the Copts and Ethiopians -- decree for the Jacobites, etc.
4 February 1441
Marian Text: [The document clarifies the differences between the Manichean teachings on Jesus Christ (born of Mary) and the teachings of the Councils]
Published in Latin [BR05, 058-065]

Peter Barbo (Balbo) Venetian. At first a merchant Archdeacon of Bologna, papal Notary, Bishop of Cervia, Cardinal-deacon, Cardinal-priest of S. Marco
Paul II (1464-1471)

Bull "Ineffabilis providentia summi Patris" -- concerning celebration of a year of jubilee
19 April 1470
Marian Text" [The document proclaims favors for the jubilee by way of indulgences to four major churches: The basilicas of Sts. Peter and Paul, the Lateran, and St. Mary Major]
Published in Latin [BR05, 200-205]

NOTE: For information on the revisions after Vatican II concerning indulgences, see:
Indulgentiarum Doctrina (January 1, 1967)
[English, French, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish] at the Vatican website

For a publication produced in 1999 by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops see:

Francis d'Albescola della Rovere, Italian of Savona (Piedmont); celebrated Franciscan preacher, General of the Order, Cardinal-priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli
Sixtus IV (1471-1484)

Constitution “Cum praeexcelsa”
27 February 1477
Marian text: [celebration of the feast Immaculate Conception with established Masses and the reading of other liturgical offices]
Published in Latin [BR06, 168-169]

Bull“Dum attenta”
12 May 1479
Marian text: [Declaration of approbation regarding the Rule of the Order dedicated to the glorious Mother of God of Mount Carmel]
Published in Latin [BR05, 244-245]

Bull“Ea quae ex fidelium”
12 May 1479
Marian text: [Recitation of the Rosary]
Published in Latin [BR05, 268-269] and in EI395

Bull“Romanus Pontifex"
8 December 1479
Marian text: [Recitation of the Rosary]
Published in Latin [BR05, 269-270]

Constitution “Grave nimis”
4 September 1483
Marian text: [See Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol 7, 680: (concerning Immaculate Conception) punishment for "all those of either opinion who charged the opposite opinion with heresy"]
Published in Latin and German German [DH1425; DH1426]

John de Medici, son of Lorenzo, Florentine. Legate to Bologna, governor of Perugia, Titular Abbot of Passignano, Fontedolce, etc. Papal Fieldmarshal, Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Domnica, died at Mallinano. The last Pope not yet ordained priest at the time of his election
Innocent VIII (1484-1492)

Encyclopedia entry: and Lat_rosarium_.html
Marian Text: [Privileged the Confraternities of the Rosary]

John de Medici, son of Lorenzo, Florentine. Legate to Bologna, governor of Perugia, Titular Abbot of Passignano, Fontedolce, etc. Papal Fieldmarshal, Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Domnica, died at Mallinano. The last Pope not yet ordained priest at the time of his election
Leo X (1513-21)

Bull “Pastoris aeterni”
6 October 1520
Marian Text: [Indulgence for the Rosary Confraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
Published in Latin [BR05, 757-760]

Julius de Medici, son of Julian, Florentine, monk of the Order of St. John, Prior of Capua, Bishop of Narbonne, Archbishop of Florence, Vice-Chancellor, Cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso
Clement VII (1523-1534)

Motu proprio “Etsi temporalium”
8 May 1534
The Bullarium Romanum, Vol. 6, indicates privileges extended by Pope Clement to Orders which celebrated the Blessed Virgin Mary with festivals and/or liturgies. (See BR VI, p. 67, p. 144)
Marian text: [Approbation of the Confraternity of the Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
Published in Latin [BR06, 168-169]

Alexander Farnese, Roman, at first in the suite of the papal Fieldmarshal Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), Protonotary and Treasurer, Cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosmos and Damian, Cardinal-bishop of Ostia, etc.
Paul III (1534-1549) (His teachings prior to and during Trent)

Marian feasts of the breviary of Quinones
Constitution “Breviarium divini officii,” 3 July 1536
Hymn to Mary
Hymn to Mary
Hymn to Mary
Confirmation of the Constitution of Sixtus V
Mary’s Privileges
Mary’s Royalty

Note: (our translation):

"...the statements of the Council [Trent] concerning the Immaculate Conception in the decree on original sin [17 June 1546] are significant. It is specifically stressed that it was not the intention of the Council to include the Blessed Mother in the general statements on original sin. On 9 January 1547, the Council concluded Session VI, § 23 with the decree on justification. Concerning Mary, in the decree it is stated that through God's special privilege, she remained free of all sin.

"An expression of Paul's devotion to Mary was also his fostering of pilgrimages to Loreto." [Source: Marienlexikon, Vol. 5, p. 127]


Bibliography and Compendiums

AAS – Acta Apostolicae Sedis; commentarium officiale, Vatican City:Libreria editrice vaticana, 1909-

AG – Acta Gregorii Papae XVI, Corpus actorum RR. pontificum, Graz : Akadem. Druck- und Verlagsanst., 1971

AL – Sanctissimi domini nostri Leonis Papae XIII Allocutiones, epistolae, constitutiones, aliaque acta praecipua, Brugis ; et Insulis : Typis Societatis Sancti Augustini : Desclee, De Brouwer, 1887-1906

AP – Pii IX Pontificis Maximi acta, Graz : Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt, 1971

APX – Pii X Pontificis Maximi acta, Graz : Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt, 1971

ASS – Acta Sanctae Sedis, .Lyon:Typis Xaverii Jevain, 1890-1891 – Many references to this series were conveniently found collected in Marie : documents pontificaux sur la Très Sainte Vierge parus depuis un siècle, 1854-1954 : recueil / préparé et annoté par Ernest Lemieux, Québec : Presses universitaires Laval, 1954-

BR – Tomassetti, Luigi, Cocquelines, Charles, Gaude, Francesco, 1809-1860, and Bilio, Luigi, 1826-1884, Bullarium romanum, Augustae Taurinorum, Seb. Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-72
CIC – Codex Iuris Canonici, Pii X Pontificis Maximi [1917], Westminster:The Newman Book Shop, 1942

CMP – Campos, Sergius Alvarez, OFM, Corpus Marianum Patristicum, Burgos:Ediciones Aldecoa, 1970-1985. Citation format: Volume number (I, II, III, IV/1, IV/2, V, VI, Indices) followed by excerpt number - e.g. "CMP III, 2268."|

D – Denzinger, Heinrich, The Sources of Catholic Dogma, translated by Roy J. Deferrari from the Thirtieth Edition of Henry Denzinger's Enchiridion Symbolorum, Freiburg:Herder, 1957. Electronic version contained on Harmony Media CD Welcome to the Catholic Church 3.0, Salem, Or:Harmony Media Inc, 2001 – Copyright statement: "No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission from Harmony Media or the respective copyright owner. Non-commercial, personal use, manipulation or printing of the data is permitted for educational or recreational purposes only. Under these laws, you may use this material on one computer workstation at a time. You do not have the right to copy the software, except as necessary to use it on one workstation. You are legally accountable for violation of the copyright, trade secret, or trademark laws."

DACL – Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, Fernand Cabrol and Henri Leclercq, eds, Paris:Letouzey et Ané, 1913-1953

DH – Denzinger, Heinrich, Kompendium der Glaubensbekenntnisse und kirchlichen Lehrentscheidungen, Verbessert, erweitert, ins Deutsche übertragen und unter Mitarbeit von Helmut Hoping herausgegeben von Peter Hünermann, 40. Auflage, Freiburg:Herder, 2005

EI – Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, 2nd. edition, Rome:Typis polyglottis vaticanis, 1952 – The Raccolta or A Manual of Indulgences… from the 1950 official edition of the "Enchiridion Indulgentiarum…", NY:Benziger Brothers, Inc, 1952 – The 1952 indulgences are largely superseded: Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, Normae et concessiones, 4th edition, Vatican:Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1999 – The Handbook of Indulgences, Norms and Grants, Authorized English edition, (based on the Third edition of Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, 1986), NY:Catholic Book Publishing Co, 1991

FOC – Fathers of the Church, A New Translation. Series begun in the mid-20th-century and still releasing new translations, now under the auspices of the Catholic University of America. – Volume 017. Saint Peter Chrysologus, Selected Sermons and Saint Valerian, Homilies, translated by George E. Ganss, S.J., NY:Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1953; Volume 034. St. Leo the Great, Letters, translated by Brother Edmund Hunt, C.S.C., NY:Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1957; Volume 038. Saint Augustine, Sermons on the Liturgical Seasons, translated by Sister Mary Sarah Muldowney, R.S.M., NY:Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1959; Volume 093. St. Leo the Great, Sermons, translated by Jane Patricia Freeland, C.S.J.B. and Agnes Josephine Conway, S.S.J., Washington D.C.:Catholic University of America Press, 1996; Volume 109. Saint Peter Chrysologus, Selected Sermons Volume 2, Homilies, translated by William B. Pallady, Washington, D.C.:The Catholic University of America Press, 2004

MBC – Barberi, Andrea, Segretus, Rainaldus, and Spetia, Alexander, Magnum bullarium Romanum, Roma:Ex Typographia Reverendæ Cameræ Apostolicæ, 1835-1858

NCWC – National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, D.C.

OOB – Opera omnia / Benedicti XIV, Prati : Alberghetus, in Typographia Aldina, 1839-1847

TTH – Translated Texts for Historians – Volume 06. The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis), revised [second] edition, translated with an introduction by Raymond Davis, Liberpool:Liverpool University Press, 2000

CD. ROM Ellenika Leitourgika Keimena tes Orthodoxes Ekklesias, Akathistos Ymnos and Staseis; Megale Paraklese
The Service of the Akathist Hymn, translated from the Greek by the Holy Transfiguration Monastery, Brookline:Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1991

Missale Romanum. Editio Princeps 1570 in CD-ROM, Vatican City:Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2000
Saint Joseph Continuous Sunday Missal, edited and compiled from the "Saint Joseph Daily Missal" by Rev. Hugo Hoever, D.O.Cist., Ph.D., NY:Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1958-1957

The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St Hippolytus of Rome, edited by Gregory Dix and Henry Chadwick, second revised edition reissued with additional corrections, London:The Alban Press, 1992
Aboseif, Anthony, ed, Coptic Hymns, A Book of Hymns for All Occasions of the Coptic Year, first edition, Hayward:Saint Antonius Coptic Orthodox Church, 2000

CD-ROM. The Early Church Fathers from the original 38 Volumes by Harmony Media, Inc.
Copyright Harmony Media, Inc. 2000 All rights reserved

Le liber pontificalis, Abbé L. Duchesne, 2nd edition, Paris:E. de Boccard, 1955-1957


  • Anaphoras, The Book of the Divine Liturgies according to the Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, Lodi, NJ:Metropolitan Mar Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, 1991
  • Bazzi, Fr. Michael, Chaldean Prayers and Hymns, St. Peter Chaldean Catholic Church (El Cajon, Ca), 1997 (no communicantes with perpetual virginity)
  • The Coptic Orthodox Liturgy of St. Basil, Cairo:The American University in Cairo Press, 1998
  • Divine Liturgy of the Armenian Church, 3rd ed, Diocese of the Armenian Church of America, 1974
  • The Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, Brookline:Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1985
  • The Ethiopic Liturgy, Liturgy of the Apostles, Addis Ababa, 1958 [English only]
  • Hoever, Rev. Hugo, SOCist, PhD, Saint Joseph Continuous Sunday Missal, NY:Catholic Book Publishing Co, 1958
  • Hieratikon, hai theiai leitourgiai, Athens:Publication of the Apostolic Service of the Church of Greece, 1968
  • Magistretti, Dr. Marcus, Monumenta veteris liturgiae Ambrosianae vol 1, 1897, Nendeln:Kraus Reprint, 1971 (of Milan:Ulrich Hoepli, 1905)
  • Meshafe Keddasie (Catholic), Rome, 1945
  • Pieuchologion ente ti-Ekklesia en-Alexandrine (Catholic), Rome, 1971
  • Qurbono, The Book of Offering, The Service of the Holy Mysteries according to the Antiochene Syriac Maronite Church, Brooklyn:Saint Maron Publications, 1994 [English only]. The main anaphoras with claim to origination in the Syrian area are lacking a reference to the perpetual virginity. It is present in the anaphoras of St. John Maron and James of Sarug, and in some apparently foreign anaphoras such as those of St. Mark, St. Sixtus, and St. John Chrysostom. Consult also Pentalogie antiochienne/domaine Maronite, L'abbé Y. Moubarrac, tome IV, Livre du pain et du vin, de l'eau, de l'huile et du baume, Beirut:Cenacle libanais, 1984
  • Shashy, Rev.; Andrew C, tr. by Redlinger, Joseph, The Holy Mass According to the Syrian Rite of Antioch [Catholic] with Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles, Jacksonville, 1955 [English with selected Aramaic transliteration]

Other summary sources:
The Vatican website:
EWTN’s online Document Library:

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