Skip to main content

Chronological Table of Marian Events

Chronological Table of Marian Events

– Compiled By: Sister Isabell Naumann and Richard Lenar  

1st Century | 2nd Century | 3rd Century | 4th Century | 5th Century 

6th Century | 7th Century | 8th Century | 9th Century | 10th Century 

11th Century | 12th Century | 13th Century | 14th Century | 15th Century  

16th Century | 17th Century | 18th Century | 19th Century | 20th Century 

21st Century | References


1st Century

40  January 2nd—Apparition of Mary to Apostle James the Greater in Zaragoza, Spain. She appears on a pillar. All About Mary: Our Lady of Pilar

54-57  First allusion to Mary in Paul’s Letter to the Galatians (4:4)

60-70  Mary mentioned twice in Mark’s Gospel

75-106 Matthew and Luke's Gospels [first and second chapters]Luke Acts (1:14) and John’s Gospel (2:3-12; 6:42; 19:25-27) show Mary’s presence in the life of Jesus and the early Christian Community

90-100  Mary and the Church are both symbolized in the image of the woman in the Book of Revelation (chapter 12)


2nd Century

100-200  Inscription under St. Peter's Basilica in Rome depicts Mary as Protectrix for the departed and their Advocate.

110-115  In his letters, Ignatius of Antioch makes five references to Mary as Virgin and Mother. (To the Ephesians: 7.2, PG 5, c 757; 18.2, PG 5, c 752; 19.1, PG 5, c 753; Trallians 9.1-2, PG 5, c 788-89; Smyrnaeans 1.1, PG 5, c 840-41)

120 Odes of Solomon mentions the Virgin who gives birth (Ode XIX).

145 Aristides of Athens cites Mary in a creedal formula (Apology 2, 4). 

150-165  Justin Martyr in the Dialogue with Trypho (PG 6, c 709-12 100) brings the comparison between Eve and Mary (Eve-Mary Parallel). "For Eve, who was a virgin and undefiled, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought forth disobedience and death. But the Virgin Mary received faith and joy, when the angel Gabriel announced the good tidings to her that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her, and the power of the Highest would overshadow her: wherefore also the Holy Thing begotten of her is the Son of God; and she replied, 'Be it unto me according to your word.' (Luke 1:38) And by her has He been born, to whom we have proved so many Scriptures refer, and by whom God destroys both the serpent and those angels and men who are like him; but works deliverance from death to those who repent of their wickedness and believe upon Him." (

150-155  Composition of the Protoevangelium of James (also known as the “Gospel of Mary”). This Christian apocryphal text contains details about devotion to, Mary and is the source of the names of Mary’s parents and traditions regarding her childhood and early life. 

150-200  Inscription of Abercius, Bishop of Hieropolis, alludes to Mary's virginity, holiness, and relationship to the Holy Eucharist.                            

150-202  Irenaeus of Lyons points to Mary’s role in the economy of salvation. Mary is causa salutis (Adv. haer. 3, 22; PG 7, c 959-60) and advocata Evae (Adv. haer. 3, 22; PG 7, c 1175 76)

155-202  Tertullian affirmed that Mary conceived Christ as a Virgin (De carne Christi 21, 5; PL 2, c 833-34) and stressed the Eve-Mary parallel (De carne Christi 17, 5; PL 2, c 828). 

162  The Sibylline Oracles speak admiringly of Mary (VIII, 609-28).

Late 2nd Century  Early representations of Mary in the catacombs 

Late 2nd Century  Clement of Alexandria calls Mary the Mother of the Lord (Stromata 6, 15; PG 9, c 349) and is a witness to the Church's faith in Mary's perpetual virginity (Stromata 7, 16; PG 9, c 529-30).



3rd Century 

200 The North African Church Father, Tertullian, affirms that proper belief about Mary is necessary to affirm the humanity of Christ. (De carne Christi 20, 1; c 830-31)

200-250 Origen is probably the first Church Father to explain the meaning of the title Theotokos (History of the Church 7, 32; PG 67, c 812) and defends the perpetual virginity of Mary (Commentary on John 1, 4; PG 14, c 32; Homilies on Luke 6, 3-4; PG 13, 1814-15). All About Mary: Dogmas, Marian; Theotokos, Meaning of 

200-350  Composition of the prayer Sub tuum praesidium–the oldest Marian prayer. All About Mary: Sub Tuum Praisidium Prayer

220  Founding of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome by Pope Callixtus I (217-222) 

235  Death of Hippolytus of Rome, who alluded to the Blessed Virgin Mary, mainly in the context of the Incarnation (Christ and Antichrist 4; PG 10 c 732).

250  St. Cyprian of Carthage indirectly extols Mary's virginity (Is. 7:14; Gen. 3:15) (CSEL 3:1, 73f)



4th Century

306-373  Ephrem the Syrian known for his poetic writings about Mary; implores Mary’s power of mediation (Oratio ad Deiparam; EnchMar 341)

318-322  Emperor Constantine publicly honors Mary through the  construction of a basilica on Vatican Hill whose façade includes a mosaic exalting Mary, Jesus and Peter. 

325-403  Epiphanius of Salamis is the first known writer who interprets the Woman of the Apocalypse (Revelation Chapter 12) as Mary (PG 42, c 716), and he is also the first to consider the question of the end of Mary’s earthly existence (PG 41, c 777); He refutes Marian heresies (PG 42, c 700-56). About Mary: Revelation, Mary in the Book ofAll About Mary: Death of Mary

328-373 Athanasius’ term as bishop of Alexandria, when he bestowed upon Mary the title: Theotokos, and pointed out that Mary’s virginal conception of Jesus is proof of Jesus’ divinity (PG 25, c 109).

330-379  St. Basil of Caesarea refers to Mary’s womb as a ‘workshop’ (In Sanctam Christi Generationem; PG 31, c 1464 A) and affirmed her marriage to Joseph (In Sanctam Christi Generationem; PG 31, c 1464 A-C.)

330-389  St. Gregory Nazianzen held that Mary’s divine motherhood is key to the Church’s doctrine about the Incarnate Word and mystery of human salvation (Sectio II. Poemata Quae Spectant Ad Alios; PG 37, c 1565 D-1566 A).

339-397  Ambrose of Milan speaks of Mary as type of the Church: Expositio in Lucam 2, 7: PL 15, c 1555), 410.

342-419  St. Jerome, in On the Perpetual Virginity of Mary against Helvidius, defends the Perpetual Virginity of Mary using scripture, affirms her great holiness and develops Marian typology in the Old Testament (De perpetua virginitate Mariae adversus Helvidium: PL 23 c 183-206). About Mary:Dogmas, Marian

344-407  St. John Chrysostom emphasizes transcendence of the mystery of the Son of God the Father by becoming incarnate in the womb of Mary (In Matthaeum, Homilia 4, 3: PG 57 c 43).

348-387  St. Cyril of Jerusalem, during his term as bishop, wrote that Mary re-established women’s equality with men (Catechesis 12, 29; PG 33, c 761 B-C); he inaugurates the Byzantine homiletic technique of teaching Marian truths by means of praises addressed to the Blessed Virgin.

350  Early recorded invocation of Mary by St. Justina (Gregory Nazianzen Oratio 24; PG 35, c 1181).

350-390  St. Gregory of Nyssa composes and distributes a Marian prayer that is a precursor of the Hail Mary; also chronicles first recorded Marian apparition to St. Gregory the Wonderworker (PG 46, c 912).

350-400 Bishop Severian of Gabala officially and publicly solicits prayers to Mary (Oratio 6, 10 In Mundi Creatione; PG 56, c 497).

352 Legend of Our Lady of the Snows during the pontificate of Liberius (352-366). All About Mary: Our Lady of the Snows

352-366 Founding of Saint Mary Major under Pope Liberius I

368  Death of St. Hilary of Poitiers, who extolled human-divine motherhood and perpetual virginity of Mary; associates Mary with Christ in the messianic prophecies (In Matthaeum 1, 2-4; PL 9, c 920-922).

370  Earliest liturgy of Mary composed in Syria; St. Ambrose of Milan speaks of Mary as a model of women and virginal life (De virginibus 2, 6-16; PL, 220-22) and a type of the Church (Expositio in Lucam 2, 7; PL 15, c 1635-1636).

380-450  Life of St. Peter Chrysologus, who defended Mary’s virginity (Sermo 143, 7; PL 52, 584; Sermo 117, 3; PL 52, 521), spoke of Joseph’s unique role (Sermo 145, 1; PL 52, 588-89), and wrote homilies about the Annunciation, Incarnation and Christmas.

392  Pope St. Siricius, in a letter to Bishop Anysius, defends the perpetual virginity of Mary (Letter 9 to Anysius against Bonosus 3-4; PL 13 c 1177-1178). All About Mary: Marian Teachings, Pre-Early Modern Period

394  Augustine of Hippo speaks of Mary as most excellent member and type of the Church (De Verbis Evangelli Matth, Sermo 25, 7; PL 46, c 938); proclaims Mary free from original sin (De natura et gratia 36, 42; PL 44, 267) and exalts her status as Virgin and Mother (De sancta virginitate 6, PL 40 c 399) 

394  Death of Gregory of Nyssa, who insisted on the reality of Mary’s motherhood (Against Apollinaris 6, PG 45, c 1136 C-D) and drew an analogy between Moses seeing the burning bush without being consumed and Mary’s virginity (On the Birth of Christ, PG 46, c1133 D-1136 B)



5th Century 

400  Santa Maria Antiqua Church founded in Rome in the Forum.  The church contains the earliest Roman depiction of Santa Maria Regina.

400  Earliest copy of the Transitus of Mary is written. 

Early 5th Century  Church of Mary in Ephesus is probably one of the earliest local Marian churches.

400-500  Temple of Isis at Soissons, France dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary,

  Feast of the Annunciation celebrated in Byzantium,

  Introduction of the Feast of the Commemoration of the Virgin Mary throughout Europe

  Feast of the Hypapante (encounter between Christ and Simeon) celebrated.

431  Council of Ephesus proclaims Mary as Theotokos 
All About Mary: Theotokos, Meaning of

432  Dedication of the enlarged and restored Church of Saint Mary Major/Rome by Pope Sixtus III

440-461  Introduction of Marian reference in the Eucharistic prayer of the Leonine Sacramentary, ("In communion with and venerating in the first place the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of God. ...")

440-461  Pontificate of Pope Leo the Great, who applied Old Testament text to Mary (Sermo 22, 1; PL 54, 194; Sermo 24, 1; PL 54, 204) and develops concept of Mary as a type of the Church

ca. 445   Icons attributed to St. Luke, eventually known as the Hodegetria, begin to appear 
All About Mary: Contemporary Spirituality (see full text, page 50 of pdf "D. A 'Triplex Via Mariana'")

ca. 446   Death of Theodotus of Ancyra, who proposed that Mary’s marriage to St. Joseph protected Mary’s virginity (In Die Nativitatis Domini, Homily 5, 3; PG 77, c 1414 B)

451  Pope Leo the Great in his Tomus ad Flavianum uses the reality of Mary’s motherhood of Christ to guarantee the authenticity of Christ’s human nature and to distinguish the two natures of Christ. (Epistola 28; PL 54 c 755-782) 

451  Empress Pulcheria of Byzantium begins a collection of relics of Mary

473  Preservation of Mary’s holy head dress, the Maforion,  in the Church of the Blachernae (Byzantine and Armenian rites) celebrated as a feast.


6th Century

500-600  Parthenon (temple of Athena) in Athens dedicated to Mary

500-600  Dedication of Saint Mary Antiqua in Rome

500-600  Tradition of Mary with Child Jesus established in iconography. 
All About Mary: Icons

520-556  Syrian poet St. Romanos the Melodist composes our greatly used Marian hymns

530-600  Life of Venantius Fortunatus, through song, elevates Mary about all great women of the Old Testament (Carmina miscellanea 2, 2; PL 88, 88)

534  Pope John II, in his letter to the Senate of Constantinople, declares that Mary is “truly the Mother of God”

538-594  Life of Gregory of Tours, who collected written accounts of miracles associated with Mary’s intercession (Libri Miraculorum PL 71) and wrote about the mystery of Mary’s Assumption into heaven (Libri Miraculorum 1, De Gloria beatorum martyrum 4; PL 71, c 708)

540-604  Life of St. Gregory the Great, who identifies Mary with Isaiah 2:2 (In I Regnum 1, 5; PL 79, c 25), affirmed her superiority above all men and angels (Moralia 33, 8; PL 76, c 671)and spoke of a Marian apparition as a fact (Dialogi 4, 18; PL 77, c 348-49)

543  Dedication of church to Saint Mary in Jerusalem

550  Celebration of the Feasts of the Birth of Mary, the Presentation of Jesus, and the Dormition in Byzantium

550  Greek philosopher Oecumenius gives first completely Marian interpretation of Revelation 12

550-600  Theoteknos, Bishop of Livias, gives earliest affirmation of belief in the bodily assumption of Mary (Encomium 9; see Wenger 276)

553  Second Council of Constantinople reiterates dogma of Mary’s Divine Motherhood and mentions Mary’s perpetual virginity (Can. 6; DS 218)

590-604 Pope Gregory the Great writes about important aspects of Marian devotion and describes theological principles which make Marian devotion legitimate. (Epist 9, 52; PL 77, 990-91)


7th Century

600   Introduction of the Akathistos Hymn in the East. The Akathist par excellance was written in the sixth century to the Theotokos. In its use as part of the service of the Salutations to the Theotokos (used in the Byzantine tradition during Great Lent), it is often known by its Greek or Arabic names, Chairetismoi (Rejoicings) and Madayeh, respectively. In the Slavic tradition it is known as Akafist.

600-636  St. Isidore of Seville writes knowingly about Mary and calls her “sanctuary of the Holy Spirit” (De ortu et obitu Patrum III; PL 83, c 148 C)

610  Byzantine Emperor Heraclitus places the image of Mary on the masts of the ships of his fleet

649  Council of the Lateran declares the perpetual virginity of Mary (Can. 3; DS 256)

ca. 650 Mary is mentioned in the Quran. (Surah 3, ayah 47 supports Mary's virginity. See also surah 66, ayah 12; it dedicates a surah 19 to Mary under the name Maryam)

650  Celebration of the Annunciation (March 25) and the Assumption (August 15) in Rome

650   Celebration of the Feast of the Purification (February 2)

675-700  Celebration of the Feast of the Birth of Mary

680-681  The Third Council of Constantinople reaffirms Mary's Divine Motherhood (DS 290)


8th Century

700-800  Possible composition of the Ave Maris Stella
All About Mary: Star of the Sea

700-733  St. Germanus I of Constantinople proposes that we do "not need any other mediator in God's presence" (Homily on the Cincture, PG 98, c 380 B)

700-740  St. Andrew of Crete invokes Mary as “Help of Christians”  (Homily 4 on Mary's Nativity, PG 97, c 880 C) 
All About Mary: Help of Christians

700-749  St. John Damascene gives clearest teaching on the Immaculate Conception up to his day Homily on the Nativity 2; PG 96, c 664 A). He produces a synthesis of Marian teaching for the Eastern Church (Treatise on the Orthodox Faith); these writings are the basis for later Marian theological work during the Middle Ages.

705-707  Pope John VII earns the title “Servant of the Mother of God”

750  The Legend of Theophilus is translated into Latin. Theophilus was an archdeacon in Cilicia who sold his soul to the Devil. He repented and asked Our Lady to rescue him from his pact.

787  The Second Council of Nicaea defines regulations for the veneration rendered to images of Mary (DS 302)


9th Century

800  Originally part of the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew; the Gospel of Mary’s Nativity makes its appearance as independent work.

800-900  Feast of the Conception of St. Ann was instituted at Byzantium

ca. 802  Alcuin composes Masses in honour of Our Lady on Saturday and for other weekdays, which become part of the Missal in 875.

804   The Marian cathedral (Marienmünster) in Aachen, built by Charlemagne, is dedicated by Pope Leo III.

845-869   St. Paschasius Radbert upholds the Virgin Birth (De partu Virginis 1; PL 120, c 1373 D-1374 A; see also Ibid., 2; PL 129, c 1385 A), the Assumption of Mary’s soul (Cogitis me; PL 30, c 123), and a form of Mary’s Immaculate Conception (De partu Virginis 1, PL 120 1372 A)

ca. 851   The Story of the Birth of Mary is composed and is attributed to St. Paschasius Radbert

867-870  Dedication of the Saturdays to Mary (see Missale Romanum)

867-870  Fourth Council of Constantinople renews approval of the “cult images rendered to Mary” (DS 337)

876  Charles the Bold obtains what is believed to be the dress of Mary



10th Century

c. 900   The Protecting Veil, apparition of Mary in Constantinople.

900-1000   Gregory V (996-998) composes the antiphon, Regina Coeli. About Mary: Antiphons

900-1000   Introduction of The Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg in the Cathedral of Verdun

900-1000   Translation of the Transitus Mariae' stories from Greek into Latin.

900-1000   The Liber Transitus Mariae originated in the 4th-5th centuries contains a legend about Mary's death and assumption to heaven.

945  Title “Mother of Mercy” spreads throughout the West after being mentioned in the Life of Odo by John of Salerno

963  St. Athanasius the Athonite establishes a monastery dedicated to the Mother of God on Mt. Athos peninsula in Greece; icon of Our Lady of Iveron transported to Mt. Athos monastery

975  Dedication of the Saturdays to Mary

975  Foundation Montserrat Abbey in Spain, which becomes a shrine with a Black Madonna

988  According to one account, the Icon known as Our Lady of Czestochowa was brought from Constantinople to Kiev



11th Century

1000-1100   Introduction of Feast of Mary's Compassion,

1000-1100   Composition of Hail Holy Queen,

1000-1100   Start of the building of Notre Dame Cathedral in Chartres/France

ca. 1028   St. Anthony of Kiev establishes a monastery dedicated to Mary’s Assumption

1050-1150   Composition of the antiphons, Alma Redemptoris Mater and Salve Regina attributed to Hermann the Lame 
All About Mary: Antiphons

1050-1150   Building of the church of Our Lady of Walsingham/ England

1050-1072   St. Peter Damian establishes a connection between Mary and the Eucharist (Sermo 45; PL 144, 743 C) and also promotes the Little Office

1050-1093   Composition of three famous Marian prayers by St. Anselm of Canterbury (Oratio 50, Oratio 51, Oratio 52; PL 158, 948-959)

1080-1124   Eadmer of Canterbury composes The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Tractatus de conceptio sactae Mariae; PL 159, c 301-318.  See Gambero 118 footnote 2), which at the time, was the best exposition of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception


12th Century

1100   Flourishing of devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, especially by St. Anselm, Eadmer, St. Bernard, and Hugh of St. Victor, among others

ca. 1100   Berengaud, bishop of Treves, is the first writer to use the title, Mother of the Church (Mater Ecclesiae) 
All About Mary: Mother of the Church

1100-1200   Early versions of the Litany of the Virgin Mary; the first part of the Hail Mary, and the Rosary 
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
All About Mary: Rosary Origins

1100-1200   Spread of the Life of Mary to the West

1100-1135   Rupert of Deutz gives Marian interpretation of the Song of Songs (In Canticum Canticorum 1, 1; PL 168, 839-40) and speaks of Mary’s spiritual motherhood (In Joannem 13; PL 169, 789 D)

1100-1150   First appearance of the Hail Mary

1100-1150   Marian mosaic placed in Cathedral of Torcello, Italy

1100-1153   Anselm of Canterbury and Bernard of Clairvaux highlight Mary's role in redemption in addition to her role in the incarnation 
All About Mary: Anselm of Canterbury 
All About Mary: Channel and Fountain Symbolism

1151   Establishment of Santa Maria de Alcobaça Monastery in Portugal

1154   Founding of Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Palestine

1163-1235   Building of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France

1179   Establishment of shrine of Our Lady of Nazare in Portugal

1194-1220/60   Rebuilding and dedication of the Cathedral in Chartres/France,143.html



13th Century

1200   Development in Franciscan spirituality of devotion to the Seven Delights or Joys of Mary

1200   Origin of various devotions to the joys of Mary as well as contemplations on the sorrows of Mary 
All About Mary: Seven Sorrows, Seven Joys 
The Mary Page ArchiveThe Mary Page Archive

1216   St. Francis of Assisi has a vision of the Virgin Mary and establishes the Order of the Franciscans at the site of the chapel of Porziuncola.

1220   Dedication of a church at Mt. Carmel to Our Lady

1225-1250   Stephen of Sawley develops meditations on the fifteen joys of Mary All About Mary: Stephen of Sawley: Mary's Joys

1230-1280   Albert the Great uses the title "Mother of the Church
All About Mary: Mother of the Church

1250-1274   Bonaventure introduces the word hyperdulia for the type of veneration given to Mary; Attributed also to Thomas Aquinas (Gambeio 213)
All About Mary: Adoration of Mary

1251   St. Simon Stock receives the Scapular from Mary 
All About Mary: Our Lady of Mount Carmel Scapular 

1260-1306  Composition of the Stabat Mater by Jacopone da Todi 
All About Mary: Stabat Mater Poetry 
All About Mary: Stabat Mater, Origins
All About Mary: Popes on the Rosary (see Urban IV)

ca. 1265   First records of the Angelus prayer; in 1269 St. Bonaventure recommends the saying of three Hail Marys with the evening bell. (Chronicorum 24 Generalium; Analecta Franciscana III, 329)

1265-1308  Duns Scotus is the first to set forth sound arguments for Mary's Immaculate Conception 
All About Mary: John Duns Scotus on the Immaculate Conception

1270   Icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa brought to city of Lviv

1294   Beginning of pilgrimages to Loreto to venerate Holy House of Loreto and Our Lady of Loreto


14th Century

1300-1400  Institution of the Feast of Mary's Presentation 
All About Mary: Presentation of Mary

1315  Church of St. Mary of Loreto mentioned for the first time in acts of penal process held at Macerata (Marche, Italy)

1318  Pope John XXII approved custom of reciting Hail Mary at the curfew hour

1326  Founding of Oriel College/Oxford and its dedication to Mary 

1327  Pope John XXII wrote that the evening bell of the three Hail Marys be rung in Rome

1372  Institution of the Feast of Mary’s Purification in the West

1375  Pope Gregory XI grants first indulgences to the Church of Loreto

1377  Pope Gregory XI fosters Marian devotion by requiring the Curia to participate in the celebration of the Feast of the Presentation of Blessed Virgin Mary. [Source: Marienlexikon, Vol. 3, p. 16]
All About Mary: Marian Teachings: Pre-Early Modern Period 
All About Mary: Presentation of Mary

1379  Founding of Saint Mary's College/Oxford and its dedication 

1382  Icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa removed from Lviv by Prince Ladislaus of Opole

1384  Icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa housed in chapel at Jasna Gora

1385  Portuguese success at Battle of Aljubarrota attributed to intercession of Blessed Virgin Mary

1387  Monastery of St. Mary of Victory built to honor Mary because of her intercession at Battle of Aljubarrota

1395  Grand Prince Vasili of Moscow orders icon of Our Lady of Vladimir be brought to Moscow; icon credited with protecting Moscow from invasion by Tamerlane

1390  In the Bull Superni benignitas, Pope Boniface IX institutes the Feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (BR04, 602-604)
All About Mary: Marian Teachings: Pre-Early Modern Period 
All About Mary: Feast of the Visitation


15th Century

1400  “Litany of Loreto” formed 
All About Mary: Litany of Loreto in Context

1400  Special grace of the Virgin Mary received by the Carmelites and reported by John Grossi’s Viridarium

1400-1500  Composition of the Memorare 
All About Mary: Memorare Prayer

1410  Introduction of the Rosary of Dominic the Carthusian

1410  Polish forces defeat the Teutonic Knights as they sing Poland’s oldest hymn “Bogurodzica Dziewica” (“God’s Virgin Mother”)

1420-1447  St. Colette of Corbie reveals her visions of Mary 
All About Mary: Holy Kindred

1423  Institution of the Feast of the Sorrows of Mary 
All About Mary: Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows

1430  Icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa damaged during robbery of shrine at Czestochowa

1435  Alain of Roche creates the “New Psalter of the Virgin” (the Rosary) in which 15 mysteries of Mary are enumerated 
All About Mary: Rosary Origins

1438-1445  Council of Florence professes that the Son of God became man through Mary (DS 709)

1439  Council of Basel defines doctrine of Immaculate Conception (DS 734)

1440  Founding of Eton College which is dedicated to Mary 

1444  St. Bernardine of Siena and his followers preach devotion of the Seven Delights of Mary through the garland of delights, or Chaplet of 72 Hail Mary
All About Mary: Seven Joys of Mary

1453  Hodegetria Icon disappears and is presumed destroyed after the fall of Constantinople

1456  Last practice of the Angelus solidified with the promulgation by Pope Callixtus III of praying three Hail Marys at midday

1457  Printing of the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1464  Alain of Roche, at Douai, begins preaching the “New Psalter of the Virgin;” Alain is credited with the structuring of the three groups of the Mysteries of the Rosary into Joyful, Sorrowful and Glorious

1470  Dominican Alan Rupe writes on The Unity of Mary’s Psalter

1470-1471  Martin Schongauer makes engravings on the Life of Mary

1475  Founding of the first Confraternity of the Rosary in Cologne, Germany 
All About Mary: Dominicans

1492  The Salve Regina is the first Christian prayer recited in the New World, as it was offered by Columbus and his men on San Salvador

1495  Approval of the Rosary by Pope Alexander VI

1496-1501  Michelangelo completes the Pietà 
All About Mary: Images of the Madonna (see 1500s)


16th Century

1507  Catholic Church approves pilgrimages to the shrine of Loreto

1517-1648  Protestant Reformation through which Marian devotion and knowledge gradually faded in Protestantism

1518  Titian paints his Assumption at Frari, Venice, Italy

1531 Apparition of the Blessed Virgin to Juan Diego at Guadalupe, Mexico

1538  Destruction of the Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham 

1558  Publication of the Litany of Loreto 
All About Mary: Litany of Loreto in Context

1547-1563  Council of Trent affirms Mary's immunity from every actual personal fault (DS 993) and reaffirms the regulations regarding the veneration of Marian images (DS 986)

This same holy Synod doth nevertheless declare, that it is not its intention to include in this decree, where original sin is treated of, the blessed and immaculate Virgin Mary, the mother of God; but that the constitutions of Pope Sixtus IV., of happy memory, are to be observed, under the pains contained in the said constitutions, which it renews. (Fifth Session, Decree on Original Sin) (DS 792)

Moreover, that the images of Christ, of the Virgin Mother of God, and of the other saints, are to be had and retained particularly in temples, and that due honor and veneration are to be given them; not that any divinity, or virtue, is believed to be in them, on account of which they are to be worshipped; or that anything is to be asked of them; or, that trust is to be reposed in images, as was of old done by the Gentiles who placed their hope in idols; but because the honor which is shown them is referred to the prototypes which those images represent; in such wise that by the images which we kiss, and before which we uncover the head, and prostrate ourselves, we adore Christ; and we venerate the saints, whose similitude they bear: as, by the decrees of Councils, and especially of the second Synod of Nicaea, has been defined against the opponents of images. (Twenty-fifth Session, on the Invocation, Veneration, and Relics, of Saints, and on Sacred Images) (DS 986)

1555  Pope Paul IV, in the Constitution Cum Quorumdam Hominum, affirms Mary’s virginity before, during and after Christ’s birth

1563  Founding of the Marian Sodality

1563  Council of Trent reaffirms liceity of the cult of the images of Mary

1563  Hail Mary introduced into the Divine Office

1563  Appearance of Blessed Virgin Mary to St. Teresa of Jesus, who began the Discalced Carmelites with a living awareness of Mary in the Carmelite spirit

1567  Pope St. Pius V affirms Mary’s sinlessness (Papal bull Super Speculum)

1569-1679  Construction of the church Santa Maria degli Angeli in Assisi.

1571  Intervention of Mary credited with Christian victory over Islamic conquest at Gulf of Lepanto. The victory at the Battle of Lepanto is attributed by Pius the V to the recitation of the Rosary.

1571  Pope Pius V honors Mary with title Our Lady of Victory

1572  Pius V adds the invocation Mary, Help of Christians to the Marian Litany. and introduces the Feast of Our Lady of Victory. 
All About Mary: Help of Christians 
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
All About Mary: Our Lady of Victory

1573  Gregory XII Changes the Feast of Our Lady of Victory to the Feast of the Holy Rosary. 
All About Mary: Our Lady of Victory

1577  St. Peter Canisius writes De Maria Virgine Incomparabili

1578  Apparition at Lezajsk/Poland

1586  Holy House of Holy Family in Loreto, Italy, raised to a city and granted cathedral status by Pope Sixtus V

1587  Litany of Loreto approved by Pope Sixtus V 
All About Mary: Litany of Loreto in Context

1550-1617  Francis Suarez establishes first systematic Mariology with his Opera Omnia

1594  Apparition at Quito, Ecuador


17th Century

1601  Litany of Loreto (Litany of the Blessed Virgin) prescribed for the Universal Church by Pope Clement VIII 
All About Mary:Litany of Loreto in Context

ca. 17th Century  The French School of Sprituality (Bérulle, Condren, Olier, John Eudes, also John-Baptist de la Salle, Grignion de Montfort) brings about a renewal of Marian devotion: Mary at the heart of the Christian mystery; the first and most perfect Christian          

1608  Russian monks invoke protection of Mary in defense of Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius in Moscow

1608-1612  Aparaition at Siluva/Lithuania

1610  La Conquistadora (also known as Our Lady of Conquering Love) brought to Santa Fe, New Mexico by Spanish Conquistadores 

1627  Beginning of records of large-scale pilgrimages to the Black Madonna of Czestochowa

1643-1669  Devotion to the “Heart of Mary” promoted by St. John Eudes 
All About Mary: Immaculate Heart of Mary Devotion

1644  Establishment of the Feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary 
All About Mary: Liturgical History of Marian Feasts

1648  Establishment of Feast of Our Lady of Iveron after daughter of Russian Tsar Alexis cured from illness upon arrival of copy of Icon of Our Lady of Iveron to Moscow.

1652  Apparition at Querrien, Brittany,/France

1655  Our Lady of Czestochowa invoked by Polish monks during invasion by Sweden; victory at monastery results, and Swedish occupation driven from country

1656  Poland’s King Jan Kazimierz gives Mary title “Queen of Poland” after victory over Sweden 
All About Mary: Pope John Paul II and Poland's Marian Tradition

1664-1718  Apparitions at Laus/France

1673  Founding of the Marians (Congregation of Marians of the Immaculate Conception) by the Venerable Servant of God Stanislaus Papczynski

1675  St. Margaret Mary Alacoque has vision of Jesus revealing His Sacred Heart ablaze with love and calling for return of love from all of humanity

1676  Fr. Colombière spreads St. Margaret Mary Alacoque’s devotion to the Sacred Heart to Great Britain       

1680  St. John Eudes composes The Admirable Heart of Mary, the first full-length book on the Heart of Mary

1683  Feast of the Holy Name of Mary extended to the Universal Church 
All About Mary: Name of Mary Feast: September 12

1683  King Jan III Sobieski invokes intercession of Mary as Turks besiege Vienna; Polish forces victorious

1690  Pope Alexander VIII upholds Mary’s perfect sinlessness (Decree of the Holy Office, Dec. 7, 1690.  Error of the Jansenists (DS 1314))


18th Century

1716  Pope Clement XI extends Feast of Holy Rosary to the Catholic world in thanksgiving for triumph of Charles VI over Islamic invasion of Hungary 
All About Mary: October, Month of the Rosary

1716  Alexander de Rouville publishes The Imitation of Mary, patterned after The Imitation of Christ

1724  Pope Benedict XIV approves the unified praying of the Angelus and prescribes that during the Easter season the Angelus be replaced by the Regina Caeli

1726  The liturgical celebration of “Our Lady of Mount Carmel” is extended to the entire Latin Church 
All About Mary: Our Lady of Mount Carmel Scapular

1726  Permission from the Pope for public devotion to Mary’s Heart again refused

1727 Benedict XIII decrees Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows for Latin Church

1729  Apparition at Montagnaga/Italy

1750  Alphonsus Maria de Liguori writes The Glories of Mary

1754  Proclamation of Our Lady of Guadalupe as patroness of Mexico 
All About Mary: Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe

1799  Devotion to Mary’s Heart permitted by the pope


19th Century

ca. 1800  Beginning of Marian shrine at Lichen, Poland 
All About Mary: Our Lady of Lichen

1813  Icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa brought to St. Petersburg for veneration by Tsar Alexander I and a copy is later left in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan

1817  Founding of the Marianists by Fr. William Joseph Chaminade

1819  Institution of the Feast Mary, Help of Christians 
All About Mary: Help of Christians

1830  Apparition to Catherine Labouré in Paris, France

1842  Discovery of Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort’s book True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary

1842  Apparition in Rome/Italy

1846  Apparition at La Salette, France

1846  Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of her Immaculate Conception, is declared Patroness of the United States 

1849  Pope Pius IX’s Encyclical Ubi Primum, emphasizing Mary’s Immaculate Conception

1851  Pope Pius IX, in the Encyclical Exultavit cor Nostrum, refers to Mary as our most loving Mother and our greatest source of confidence.

1854  Proclamation of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary by Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Constitution Ineffabilis Deus

1858  Apparition at Lourdes, France

1859  Apparition at Robinsonville, Wisconsin/United States

1864  Pope Pius IX, in the Encyclical Quanta Cura, refers to Mary as Mother and Queen.

1865  Icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help returned to Esquiline Hill in Rome by the Redemptorists 
All About Mary: Our Lady of Perpetual Help

1866  Blessing of the Crypt and the first Mass at the Grotto of Massabielle, Lourdes

1866  Apparition at Flippsdorf/Czech Republic

1871  Apparition at Pontmain, France

1877  Construction of shrine to Our Lady of the Assumption at Cold Spring, Minnesota

1879  Apparition at Knock, Ireland

1879  Beginnings of Canada’s Shrine of Our Lady of the Cape in Quebec
All About Mary: Our Lady of the Cape

1883-1902  Pope Leo XIII: eleven Marian encyclicals, advocating devotion to Mary and praying the Rosary (Octobri Mense
All About Mary: Popes on the Rosary (see Leo XIII)

1883  Adding of the invocation Queen of the Most Holy Rosary to the Litany of Loreto
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1884  Origin of “54-day Rosary Novena” 
All About Mary: Lacey's Rosary Novena

1888  Apparition at Castelpetroso/Italy

1899  Consecration of the world to the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Pope Leo XIII


20th Century

1900  Proclamation of Our Lady of Guadalupe as Patroness of the Americas 
All About Mary: Nican Mopohua

1900  Consecration of the twentieth century to the Holy Spirit by Pope Leo XIII

1900  1st International Marian Congress celebrated in Lyon, France.

1902  2nd International Marian Congress celebrated in Fribourg, Switzerland.

1904  Encyclical Ad Diem Illum by Pope Pius X (on the fiftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception)

1904  3rd International Marian Congress celebrated in Rome.

1906  4th International Marian Congress celebrated in Einsiedeln, Switzerland.

1907  Institution of the Feast of Our Lady of Lourdes 
All About Mary: Liturgical History of Marian Feasts

1908  5th International Marian Congress celebrated in Salzburg, Austria.

1910  6th International Marian Congress celebrated in Zaragoza, Spain.

1912  Pope Pius X authorizes plenary indulgence on the first Saturday of each month

1912  7th International Marian Congress celebrated in Trier, Germany.

1913  Congregation of the Holy Office, in the decree Sunt quos amor, praises the custom of calling Mary “Co-Redemptrix”

1914  Construction begins on the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C.

1914  Beginning of the Schoenstatt movement by Father Joseph Kentenich in Germany

1917  Apparition at Fatima, Portugal

1917  Founding of the Militia Immaculata by Father Maximilian Maria Kolbe

1917  Pope Benedict XV adds the invocation “Queen of Peace, pray for us” to the Litany of Loreto
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1918  Adding of the invocation Queen of Peace to the Litany of the Blessed Virgin 
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1918  Pope Benedict XV, in the apostolic letter Inter Sodalicia, sets forth the role of Mary in Christ’s redeeming sacrifice  

1920  “Miracle of the Vistula” in Poland, where the Polish people rout invading Russian forces after invoking prayers to Our Lady of Czestochowa 
All About Mary: Czestochowa Black Madonna

1921  Founding of The Legion of Mary in Dublin, Ireland

1923  In the apostolic letter Explorata Res, Pope Pius XI affirms Mary’s role in the Redemption brought by Christ

1925  Canonization of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, whose spirituality was significantly influenced by the Blessed Virgin Mary 
All About Mary: Saint Thérèse de Lisieux, Marian Devotion

1925  Appearance of Our Lady of Fatima to Sister Lucia in Pontevedra, Spain, asking her to promulgate the five First Saturday devotion 
All About Mary: Saturday Devotions (see First Saturday Communion of Reparation)

1927  Holy See authorizes a special votive Mass for Our Lady of Fatima

1927  Coronation of the Icon of the Holy Mother of Mercy in Vilnius, Lithuania

1929  Appearance of Our Lady to Sister Lucia at Tui, Spain, where she asked for the Consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart

1930  Bishop of Fatima declares Fatima apparitions worthy of acceptance and of supernatural origin

1931  Institution of the Feast of the Divine Motherhood of 
Mary All About Mary: Christmas and the Solemnity of Mary's Divine Motherhood

1932-1933  Apparitions at Beauraing, Belgium

1933  Apparition at Banneux, Belgium

1933-1934  Pope Pius XI speaks of Mary’s contribution to Christ’s redemptive work and portrays her as associated with this work

1942  Pope Pius XII dedicates the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

1943  Founding of Marian Library at the University of Dayton, OH 
Marian Library/IMRI History

1944  Institution of the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary 
All About Mary: Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary

1945  Apparition at Amsterdam/Netherlands

1946  Pope Pius XII crowns image of Our Lady of Fatima and proclaims her “Queen of the World”

1946  Pope Pius XII recognizes the universal significance of the message of Fatima      

1946  Encyclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae (on the possibility of defining the Assumption) by Pope Pius XII 

1946  In Poland, 700,000 pilgrims gather at the shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa to consecrate Poland to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

1947  Canonization of St. Louis de Montfort by Pope Pius XII

1947  Establishment of the Academia Mariana Internationalis in Rome. 
All About Mary: Pontifical International Marian Academy

1949  Pope Pius XII proclaimed a Holy Year from December 24, 1949 to December 24, 1950

1949  Founding  of the Mariological Society of America by Father Juniper Carol.

1950  Proclamation of the Dogma of Mary's Assumption by Pope Pius XII in the Apostolic Constituion Munificentissimus Deus 
All About Mary: Assumption Dogma

1950  Adding of the invocation Mary, Queen assumed into heaven to the Litany of Loreto
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1950  1st International Mariological and 8th Marian Congress celebrated in Rome; theme: Alma Socia Christi.

1950  Founding of the Marianum Theological Faculty in Rome by Father Gabriel Roschini

1951  Encyclical Ingruentium Malorum on the spiritual power of the Rosary by Pope Pius XII

1952  Pope Pius XII, in his apostolic letter Sacro Vergente Anno, expressly entrusts and consecrates “in a very special way to the Immaculate Heart of Mary all the peoples of Russia”

1953  Encyclical Fulgens Corona by Pope Pius XII with the proclamation of a Marian Year in commemoration of the centenary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception 
All About Mary: Marian Years

1953  Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski composes the Jasna Gora vows, re-consecrating Poland to Mary

1953  Weeping Madonna at Syracuse/Italy

1954  Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam by Pope Pius XII with the proclamation of Mary’s Queenship and its institution as a Feast 
All About Mary: Memorial of Mary's Queenship

1954  2nd International Mariological and 9th Marian Congress celebrated in Rome; theme: Virgo Immaculata.

1956  “Polish Marian Year” declared in commemoration of the 300th anniversary of King Jan Kazimierz’s proclamation of Mary as Queen of Poland

1956  Vatican officially approves adding to the public recitation of the Rosary the Fatima prayer given by Our Lady “O my Jesus, forgive us our sins, save us from the fires of hell, lead all souls to heaven especially those who have most need of your mercy”

1957  Pope Pius XII, in the encyclical Le Pèlerinage de Lourdes, commemorates the centenary of Mary’s appearances at Lourdes

1958  3rd International Mariological and 10th Marian Congress celebrated in Lourdes; theme: Maria et Ecclesia.

1959  In the encyclical Grata Recordatio, Pope John XXIII calls Mary “the cause of salvation for the whole human race”

1959  Dedication of the main church and superstructure of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C.

1959  Pope John XXIII grants the title Pontifical to the Academia Mariana Internationalis 
All About Mary: Pontifical International Marian Academy

1960  Revelation of the third secret of Fatima to Pope John XXIII

1962  Institution of the Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary, in honor of Our Lady of Fatima, by Pope John XXIII

1964  Promulgation of the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium by Pope Paul VI at the Second Vatican Council: Chapter Eight of the Constitution gives the first Conciliar synthesis of the Church’s teaching on Mary’s place in the mystery of Christ and the Church.

1964  Proclamation of Mary as Mater Ecclesiae by Pope Paul VI 
All About Mary: Mother of the Church

1965  Encyclical Mense Maio issued by Pope Paul VI, urging prayer during Mary’s month of May. (summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Mense Maio (Summary)

1965  4th International Mariological and 11th Marian Congress celebrated in St. Domingo; theme: Maria in S. Scriptura.

1966  Encyclical Christi Matri by Pope Paul VI, in which he appeals for peace through the intercession of Mary, Mother of the Church and Queen of Peace.
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Christi Matri (Summary)

1967  Apostolic Exhortation Signum Magnum by Pope Paul VI, commemorating the 50th anniversary of Mary's apparition at Fatima. (summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Signum Magnum

1967  5th International Mariological and 12th Marian Congress celebrated in Lisbon; theme: De Primordiis Cultus Mariani (Mariologia Patristica).

1967  Pope Paul VI, in the Encyclical Sacerdotalis Caelibatus, refers to Mary as the Mother and Model of the Church and asks her to intercede for vocations to the priesthood.

1968  Apparition at Zeitun/Egypt

1969  Publication of the revised Roman Missal, which is indicative of the implementation of the Conciliar teaching of Mary's role in the mystery of Christ and the Church and the elimination of certain minor Marian feasts

1969  In the Apostolic Exhortation Recurrens Mensis October, Pope Paul VI encourages the praying of the Rosary for peace.
(summary here) All About Mary: Rosary for Peace 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Recurrens Mensis October

1970  Publication of the revised Liturgy of the Hours, also indicative of a revised Marian approach regarding Marian readings, antiphons and hymns.

1971  6th International Mariological and 13th Marian Congress celebrated in Zagrabia; theme: De cultu mariano saeculis VI-XI.

1973  Publication of the U.S. Bishops' Pastoral Letter Behold Your Mother (complete document); or this summary
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Behold Your Mother: Woman of Faith

1973  Apparition at Akita/Japan

1974  Apostolic Exhortation Marialis Cultus: For the right ordering and development of devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary.
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Marialis Cultus

1975  Revised Roman Missal (2nd edition) includes Votive Masses of “Mary, Mother of the Church” and “Holy Name of Mary”

1975  7th International Mariological and 14th Marian Congress celebrated in Rome; theme: De cultu mariano saeculis XII-XV.

1975  In the Apostolic Exhortation Gaudete in Domino, Pope Paul VI presents Mary as an example of Christian Joy.
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Guadete in Domino

1976  Polish bishops themselves consecrate all nations and peoples to the Mother of God

1976  Apparation at Batania/Venezuela

1978  Vatican’s Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith lifts prohibitions imposed in 1959 on the Mercy of God devotions advocated by Sister Faustina Kowalska

1979  Pope John Paul II, in his visit to Our Lady’s Shrine of Guadalupe in Mexico City, describes the faith of Mary as a model for all Christians and calls her the “star of evangelization”

1979  Image of Guadalupe examined by scientists and it is determined that the original image of Mary could not be explained as a human work

1979  Shrine of Our Lady of Knock in Ireland visited by Pope John Paul II and elevated to status of Basilica

1979  8th International Mariological and 15th Marian Congress celebrated in Saragoza; theme: De cultu mariano saeculis XVI.

1980  Adding of the invocation Mother of the Church to the Litany of Loreto 
All About Mary: Litany of Loreto in Context

1980  Apparition at Cuapa/Nicaragua

1981  The Church promulgates The Rite for Crowning an Image of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1981-1989  Apparitions at Kibeho/Rwanda

1982  Apparition at Edfu/Egypt

1983  Apparition at San Nicholas/Argentina

1983  9th International Mariological and 16th Marian Congress celebrated in Malta; theme: De cultu mariano saeculis XVII-XVIII.

1985  Consecration of the people and President of the United States to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

1986-1991  Apparition at Papadouplo, Shoubra, Cairo/Egypt

1987  Proclamation of a Marian Year (June 7, 1987-August 15, 1988). 
All About Mary: Marian Years

1987  Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Mater by Pope John Paul II. 
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Redemptoris Mater

1987  Publication of the Latin Edition of the Collection of Marian Masses 
All About Mary: Liturgical History of Marian Feasts

1987  10th International Mariological and 17th Marian Congress celebrated in Kevelaer; theme: De cultu mariano saeculis XIX-XX.

1988  Publication of the Letter from the Congregation for Catholic Education: The Virgin Mary in Intellectual and Spiritual Formation 
All About Mary: The Virgin Mary in Intellectual and Spiritual Formation

1988  John Paul II, in the Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitate,. presents the Blessed Virgin Mary as model for women.
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Mulieris Dignitatum

1988  Memorial of Our Lady of Guadalupe in the United States raised to status of Feast

1992  Publication of the complete English edition of the Collection of Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
All About Mary: Liturgical History of Marian Feasts

1992  11th International Mariological and 18th Marian Congress celebrated in Huelva; theme: De cultu mariano saeculo XX. Post Concilium Vaticanum II [Marian doctrine, devotion and cult from Vatican Council II up to our day].

1993  Pope John Paul II, in the encyclical Veritatis Splendor, presents Mary as the Mother of Mercy. 
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Veritatis Splendor

1994  Publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The Catechism show the intergral role of Mary in the mystery of Christ and the Church

1994  Apparition at Itapirang/Brazil

1995  Adding of the invocation Mary, Queen of Families to the Marian Litany 
All About Mary: Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

1995  John Paul II, in the encyclical Evangelium Vitae portrays Mary as the bearer and defender of life.
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Evangelium Vitae

1996   12th International Mariological and 19th Marian Congress celebrated in Czestochowa; theme: Maria, Mater Domini in mysterio salutis, quod ab Orientis et Occidentis Ecclesiis in Spiritu Sancto hodie celebratur [Mary, Mother of the Lord, in the mystery of salvation as celebrated in the Eastern and Western Churches].

1998  Bull of Indiction of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 The Mystery of the Incarnation by Pope John Paul II: Mary, the Mother of the Church, intercedes for the Christian people during the time of preparation for the great jubilee year


21st Century

2000  The Holy Year of Christ’s Birth.

2000  13th International Mariological and 20th Marian Congress celebrated in Rome; theme: Maria e il mistero della Santa Trinità (Mary and the Mystery of the Holy Trinity).

2000  Consecration of the World to Mary by Pope John Paul II and the College of Bishops

2000  Consecration of the Third Millenium of Christianity to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by Pope John Paul II

2000  The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith releases The Message of Fatima, which reveals and interprets the Third Secret of Fatima.

2000-2001  Apparition at Assuit/Egypt

2001  John Paul II, in the  Apostolic Leter Novo Millennio Inuente at the close of the Great Jubilee of the year 2000, presents the Blessed Virgin Mary as "Star of the New Evangelization."

October 2002-October 2003  The Year of the Rosary

Apostolic Letter of John Paul II Rosarium Virginis Mariae [On the Most Holy Rosary] (10/2/2002)--The Mysteries of Light.
(summary here) 
All About Mary: Magisterial Documents: Rosarium Virginis Mariae

2003  Encyclical of John Paul II Ecclesia de Eucharistia with chapter VI, "At the School of Mary, 'Woman of the Eucharist'"

2004  Twenty-first International Mariological-Marian Congress in Rome; theme: Mary of Nazareth welcomes the Son of God in History

2005  Letter to Priests for Holy Thursday from John Paul II mentions " 'Eucharistic' life at the school of Mary"

2005  Benedict XVI, in the Encyclical Deus Caritas Est [God is Love]--presents Mary as teacher of true love

2008  One-hundredth anniversary of Lourdes

2008  Twenty-second International Mariological-Marian Congress in Lourdes; theme: The Virgin Mary's apparitions. Among History, Faith and theology

2008  15th International Mariological and 22nd Marian Congress celebrated in Lourdes; theme: The apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary – between history, faith and theology

2009 Apparition at Warraq, El-Hadar/Egypt 

2012  16th International Mariological and 23rd Marian Congress celebrated in Rome; theme: Mariology since Vatican II. Reception, Assessment, and Prospects

2013  Pope Francis, in the Apostolic Exhortation Gaudium Evangelii, presents Mary as the Mother of Evangelization.



Catholic Book Publishing Co., Dictionary of Mary “Behold your Mother,” revised and expanded edition (New Jersey: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1997);

Catholic Encyclopedi.

Fiores de S., Meo, S., eds., Nuevo Diccionario de Mariología (Madrid: Ediciones Paulinas, 1988);

Gambero, Luigi.  Mary and the Fathers of the Church: The Blessed Virgin Mary in Patristic Thought.  Trans. Thomas Buffer.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999.

Gambero, Luigi.  Mary in the Middle Ages: The Blessed Virgin Mary in the Thought of Medieval Latin Theologians  Trans. Thomas Buffer.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2005.

Graef, Hilda.  Mary : A History of Doctrine and Devotion; with a new chapter covering Vatican II and beyond by Thomas A. Thompson.  Notre Dame, Indiana: Christian classics, 2009.

Martin, John.  Roses, Fountains and Gold. The Virgin Mary in History, Art and Apparition.  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1998.

Pannet, R., Bavaud, G., Margerie de, B., Dictionnaire Marial (Chambray-lès-Tours: C.L.D., 1991);

Stöhr, J., “Mariologie,” in R. Bäumer, L. Scheffczyk, eds., Marienlexikon  6 Vols. (St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag, 1992), Vol. 4, 320-326;

Warner, M., Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976).


All About Mary includes a variety of content, much of which reflects the expertise, interpretations and opinions of the individual authors and not necessarily of the Marian Library or the University of Dayton. Please share feedback or suggestions with


Marian Library

Roesch Library
300 College Park
Dayton, Ohio 45469 - 1390

Study Mary

Study the theology and history of Mary at the University of Dayton.

Learn More

Keyword Search

Would you like to begin a new keyword search?

Get Started